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  4. Christine Le Maitre

Professor Christine L Le Maitre BSc, PhD, FHEA

Professor of Cell Biology and Tissue Regeneration


Summary

Prof Le Maitre completed her BSc (Hons) in Pharmacology with industrial experience from Manchester University in 2000, and her PhD also from Manchester University in 2003. Following a number of years as a postdoctoral scientist, Prof Le Maitre was appointed as a Senior Lecturer at Sheffield Hallam University in 2008. She was promoted to Reader in 2014 and Professor in 2017. Prof Le Maitre is an internationally renowned researcher investigating musculoskeletal disorders and novel therapies., 3D culture models for disease and novel therapeutics for Leukaemia. Christine Leads the Tissue Engineering and Biomechanics Research Group in the Biomolecular Sciences Research Centre.

About

Following the award of a 1st class BSc(Hons) degree in Pharmacology with industrial experience from Manchester University in 2000, Prof Le Maitre went on to study the role of IL-1 in the pathogenesis of intervertebral disc degeneration for her PhD at Manchester University which she was awarded in 2003. She worked as a postdoctoral researcher in the same laboratory at Manchester for a further 5 years on a number of projects investigating the pathogenesis of intervertebral disc degeneration. In 2008 she moved to Sheffield Hallam University as a Senior Lecturer in molecular and cell biology, she was promoted to Reader in 2014 and Professor in 2017. She teaches cell biology and pathological basis of disease together with research and laboratory skills to UG and PG students.

She is the current Head of Research Degrees in the Institute of Industry and Innovation. In 2017 she was awarded a personal chair and is now Professor of Cell Biology and Tissue Regeneration. Her research is focused on key areas including the pathogenesis and future therapies for musculoskeletal diseases, development of 3D culture models and the use of nutraceuticals in the development of novel therapies for leukaemia., She leads the Tissue Engineering and Biomechanics research group within the Biomolecular Sciences Research Centre.

Teaching

Department of Biosciences and Chemistry

Health And Wellbeing

Subject Area

Biosciences and Chemistry

Courses

UG Biomedical Sciences, Human Biology, Biology, Biochemistry. PG MPhil, PhD, DProf

Modules

Pathogenesis of Disease

Research

Christine is an internationally renowned scientist with over 20.4 million in grant income, 2 patents and 85 publications to date with expertise in several multidisciplinary fields, a current H index of 36 and i10 index 61, with >6,522 citations on her publications to date. Her research focuses on 3 key areas:

1) investigating the cellular pathogenesis of musculoskeletal conditions, With a particular interest in the interaction of cells, biomechanics and matrix biology. This knowledge is applied to developing novel therapeutic approaches, for intervertebral disc degeneration and related low back pain, osteoarthritis and bone conditions, working in close collaboration with relevant clinical partners.

2) Development of 3D culture systems to mimic human tissues and diseases; and

3) Natural agents for cancer therapy.

Musculoskeletal conditions:

Her research also investigates the normal physiological processes and pathogenesis of conditions affecting cartilage and bone, with a particular emphasis on the role of mechanobiology, she has developed a number of 3D culture systems and tissue culture systems to investigate musculoskeletal tissues The improved understanding in pathogenesis of musculoskeletal conditions have led to the development of innovative therapies, such as: smart biomaterials, stem cell therapies and gene therapy approaches to inhibit disease processes and support regeneration, which has led to patent generation and potential commercialisation opportunities currently under development.

Development of 3D culture systems for in vitro testing to reduce animal testing

With a long-standing research interest in the use of 3D culture systems to investigate biological effects mimicking in vivo environments within musculoskeletal tissues, research is now investigating development of 3D models for bladder, liver, skin, lung and gastrointestinal tissues to mimic normal physiology and disease including cancer which can be used in the future to perform drug testing and other pharmaceutical assessments normally performed in vivo, thus reducing the number of animals needed for development of new therapies and understanding disease.

Nutraceuticals in the prevention and treatment of cancer

A further research interest is the biological effects on cancer and non-tumour cells of a number of nutraceutical compounds which have been suggested as possible therapeutic alternatives for cancer prevention and treatment. Investigating the effects of these compounds on the induction of apoptosis/necrosis, reduced cell replication and influences on cytokine production and signalling pathways involved in the pathogenesis of cancers.

Featured Projects

The iPSpine project A revolutionary research project aiming to regenerate damaged spinal discs and cure back pain Link: https://ipspine.eu/
Link: https://www.shu.ac.uk/biomolecular-sciences-research-centre/research-groups/tissue-engineering-and-biomechanics
Disc4All: Link - https://www.upf.edu/web/disc4all

Relevant Projects

iPSPINE
iPSPINE Disc4All

Collaborators and Sponsors

Extensive National and international collaborators

Funding: H2020, MRC, EPSRC, Versus Arthritis, Research England, Industry.

Publications

Key Publications

Thorpe, A., Boyes, V., Sammon, C., & Le Maitre, C. (2016). Thermally triggered injectable hydrogel, which induces mesenchymal stem cell differentiation to nucleus pulposus cells: Potential for regeneration of the intervertebral disc. Acta Biomaterialia, 36, 99-111. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2016.03.029

Thorpe, A., Binch, A., Cremers, L., Sammon, C., & Le Maitre, C. (2015). Nucleus pulposus phenotypic markers to determine stem cell differentiation : fact or fiction? Oncotarget, 7 (3), 2189-2200. http://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.6782

Phillips, K.L.E., Cullen, K., Chiverton, N., Michael, A.L.R., Cole, A.A., Breakwell, L.M., ... Le Maitre, C.L. (2015). Potential roles of cytokines and chemokines in human intervertebral disc degeneration: interleukin-1 is a master regulator of catabolic processes. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, 23 (7), 1165-1177. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2015.02.017

Dosh, R., Jordan-Mahy, N., Sammon, C., & Le Maitre, C. (2018). Tissue engineering laboratory models of the small intestine. Tissue engineering. Part B, Reviews, 24 (2), 98-111. http://doi.org/10.1089/ten.TEB.2017.0276

Phillips, K., Jordan-Mahy, N., Nicklin, M.J.H., & Le Maitre, C. (2013). Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist deficient mice provide insights into pathogenesis of human intervertebral disc degeneration. Annals of the rheumatic diseases, 72 (11), 1860-7. http://doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2012-202266

Mahbub, A.A., Le Maitre, C., Haywood-Small, S., McDougall, G.J., Cross, N., & Jordan-Mahy, N. (2013). Differential effects of polyphenols on proliferation and apoptosis in human myeloid and lymphoid leukemia cell lines. Anti-cancer agents in medicinal chemistry, 13 (10), 1601-1613. http://doi.org/10.2174/18715206113139990303

Mahbub, A.A., Le Maitre, C.L., Haywood-Small, S.L., Cross, N.A., & Jordan-Mahy, N. (2015). Glutathione is key to the synergistic enhancement of doxorubicin and etoposide by polyphenols in leukaemia cell lines. Cell Death and Disease, 6, e2028. http://doi.org/10.1038/cddis.2015.379

Mahbub, A.A., Le Maitre, C.L., Haywood-Small, S.L., Cross, N.A., & Jordan-Mahy, N. (2015). Polyphenols act synergistically with doxorubicin and etoposide in leukaemia cell lines. Cell Death Discovery, 1 (15043), 1-12. http://doi.org/10.1038/cddiscovery.2015.43

Binch, A.L.A., Cole, A.A., Breakwell, L.M., Michael, A.L.R., Chiverton, N., Creemers, L.B., ... Le Maitre, C. (2015). Class 3 semaphorins expression and association with innervation and angiogenesis within the degenerate human intervertebral disc. Oncotarget, 6 (21), 18338-18354. http://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.4274

Binch, A.L.A., Cole, A.A., Breakwell, L.M., Michael, A.L.R., Chiverton, N., Creemers, L.B., ... Le Maitre, C. (2015). Nerves are more abundant than blood vessels in the degenerate human intervertebral disc. Arthritis research & therapy, 17 (1), 370. http://doi.org/10.1186/s13075-015-0889-6

Daniels, J., Binch, A.A.L., & Le Maitre, C.L. (2016). Inhibiting IL-1 signaling pathways to inhibit catabolic processes in disc degeneration. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 35 (1), 74-85. http://doi.org/10.1002/jor.23363

Mader, K., Peeters, M., Detiger, S.E.L., Helder, M.N., Smit, T.H., Le Maitre, C., & Sammon, C. (2016). Investigation of intervertebral disc degeneration using multivariate FTIR spectroscopic imaging. Faraday Discussions, 187, 393-414. http://doi.org/10.1039/c5fd00160a

Vo, N.V., Hartman, R.A., Patil, P.R., Risbud, M.V., Kletsas, D., Iatridis, J.C., ... Kang, J.D. (2016). Molecular mechanisms of biological aging in intervertebral discs. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 34 (8), 1289-1306. http://doi.org/10.1002/jor.23195

Binch, A.L., Le Maitre, C., Thorpe, A.A., & Hughes, S.P. (2015). Degeneration of the intervertebral disc with new approaches for treating low back pain. Journal of neurosurgical sciences, 59 (1), 47-61. http://www.minervamedica.it/en/journals/neurosurgical-sciences/article.php?cod=R38Y2015N01A0047

LA Binch, A., Cole, A.A., Breakwell, L.M., Michael, A.L.R., Chiverton, N., Cross, A.K., & Le Maitre, C. (2014). Expression and regulation of neurotrophic and angiogenic factors during human intervertebral disc degeneration. Arthritis Research and Therapy, 16. http://doi.org/10.1186/s13075-014-0416-1

Dunn, S.L., Wilkinson, J.M., Crawford, A., Le Maitre, C., & Bunning, R.A.D. (2014). Cannabinoid WIN-55,212-2 mesylate inhibits interleukin-1β induced matrix metalloproteinase and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase expression in human chondrocytes. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, 22 (1), 133-144. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2013.10.016

Dosh, R., Essa, A., Jordan-Mahy, N., Sammon, C., & Le Maitre, C. (2017). Use of hydrogel scaffolds to develop an in vitro 3D culture model of human intestinal epithelium. Acta biomaterialia. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2017.08.035

Mahbub, A., Le Maitre, C., Haywood-Small, S., Cross, N., & Jordan-Mahy, N. (2017). Dietary polyphenols influence antimetabolite agents: methotrexate, 6-mercaptopurine and 5-fluorouracil in leukemia cell lines. Oncotarget, 8 (62), 104877-104893. http://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.20501

Steinberg, J., Ritchie, G.R.S., Roumeliotis, T.I., Jayasuriya, R.L., Clark, M.J., Brooks, R.A., ... Zeggini, E. (2017). Integrative epigenomics, transcriptomics and proteomics of patient chondrocytes reveal genes and pathways involved in osteoarthritis. Scientific reports, 7 (1), 8935. http://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-09335-6

Lama, P., Le Maitre, C., Harding, I.J., Dolan, P., & Adams, M.A. (2018). Nerves and blood vessels in degenerated intervertebral discs are confined to physically disrupted tissue. Journal of Anatomy, 233 (1), 86-97. http://doi.org/10.1111/joa.12817

Thorpe, A., Freeman, C., Farthing, P., Callaghan, J., Hatton, P.V., Brook, I.M., ... Le Maitre, C. (2018). In vivo safety and efficacy testing of a thermally triggered injectable hydrogel scaffold for bone regeneration and augmentation in a rat model. Oncotarget, 9 (26), 18277-18295. http://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.24813

Johnson, Z.I., Gogate, S.S., Day, R., Binch, A., Markova, D.Z., Chiverton, N., ... Risbud, M.V. (2015). Aquaporin 1 and 5 expression decreases during human intervertebral disc degeneration: novel HIF-1-mediated regulation of aquaporins in NP cells. Oncotarget, 6 (14), 11945-11958. http://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.3631

Dunn, S.L., Wilkinson, J.M., Crawford, A., Bunning, R.A.D., & Le Maitre, C.L. (2016). Expression of cannabinoid receptors in human osteoarthritic cartilage: implications for future therapies. Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, 1 (1), 3-15. http://doi.org/10.1089/can.2015.0001

Binch, A.L.A., Cole, A.A., Breakwell, L.M., Michael, A., Chiverton, N., Cross, A.K., & Le Maitre, C.L. (2014). Expression and regulation of neurotrophic and angiogenic factors during human intervertebral disc degeneration. Arthritis research & therapy, 16 (5), 416. http://arthritis-research.com/content/16/4/416

Thorpe, A.A., Sammon, C., & Le Maitre, C. (2015). 'Cell or Not to Cell' that is the question : for intervertebral disc regeneration? Journal of Stem Cells Research, Development and Therapy, 2 (1). http://heraldopenaccess.us/fulltext/StemCell-Research-Therapy/HSRDT-15-001.pdf

Binch, A., Cross, A., & Le Maitre, C. (2014). The regulation of nerve and blood vessel ingrowth in aneural and avascular intervertebral disc and articular cartilage. OA Arthritis, 2 (1), 4. http://www.oapublishinglondon.com/article/1286#Authors%20affiliations

Thorpe, A., Bach, F.C., Tryfonidou, M.A., Le Maitre, C., Mwale, F., Diwan, A., & Ito, K. (2018). Leaping the hurdles in developing regenerative treatments for the intervertebral disc from preclinical to clinical. JOR Spine, 1 (3), e1027. http://doi.org/10.1002/jsp2.1027

Dosh, R.H., Jordan-Mahy, N., Sammon, C., & Le Maitre, C.L. (2019). Long-term in vitro 3D hydrogel co-culture model of inflammatory bowel disease. Scientific reports, 9 (1), 1812. http://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-38524-8

Snuggs, J., Day, R., Bach, F., Conner, M., Bunning, R., Tryfonidou, M., & Le Maitre, C. (2019). Aquaporin expression in the human and canine intervertebral disc during maturation and degeneration. JOR spine, 2 (1), e1049. http://doi.org/10.1002/jsp2.1049

Smith, L.J., Silverman, L., Sakai, D., Le Maitre, C., Mauck, R.L., Malhotra, N.R., ... Buckley, C.T. (2018). Advancing cell therapies for intervertebral disc regeneration from the lab to the clinic: recommendations of the ORS spine section. JOR Spine, 1 (4), e1036. http://doi.org/10.1002/jsp2.1036

Taylor-Whiteley, T.R., Le Maitre, C.L., Duce, J.A., Dalton, C.F., & Smith, D.P. (2019). Recapitulating Parkinson's disease pathology in a three-dimensional human neural cell culture model. Disease Models & Mechanisms, 12 (4). http://doi.org/10.1242/dmm.038042

Le Maitre, C.L., Dosh, R., Jordan-Mahy, N., & Sammon, C. (2019). Interleukin 1 is a key driver of inflammatory bowel disease-demonstration in a murine IL-1Ra knockout model. Oncotarget. http://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.26894

Mahbub, A.A., Le Maitre, C., Haywood-Small, S., Cross, N., & Jordan-Mahy, N. (2019). Polyphenols enhance the activity of alkylating agents in leukaemia cell lines. Oncotarget, 10 (44). http://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.27068

Dosh, R., Jordan-Mahy, N., Sammon, C., & Le Maitre, C.L. (2019). Use of l-pNIPAM hydrogel as a 3D-scaffold for intestinal crypts and stem cell tissue engineering. Biomaterials Science, 7 (10), 4310-4324. http://doi.org/10.1039/C9BM00541B

Silagi, E.S., Novais, E.J., Bisetto, S., Telonis, A.G., Snuggs, J., Le Maitre, C.L., ... Risbud, M.V. (2019). Lactate efflux from intervertebral disc cells is required for maintenance of spine health. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research (JBMR). http://doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.3908

Journal articles

Boyes, V.L., Janani, R., Partridge, S., Fielding, L.A., Breen, C., Foulkes, J., ... Sammon, C. (2021). One-pot precipitation polymerisation strategy for tuneable injectable Laponite®-pNIPAM hydrogels: Polymerisation, processability and beyond. Polymer, 233. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2021.124201

Dahia, C.L., Engiles, J.B., Gullbrand, S.E., Iatridis, J.C., Lai, A., Le Maitre, C., ... Tryfonidou, M.A. (2021). A perspective on the ORS Spine Section initiative to develop a multi‐species JOR Spine histopathology series. JOR Spine, 4 (2). http://doi.org/10.1002/jsp2.1165

Le Maitre, C.L., Dahia, C.L., Giers, M., Illien‐Junger, S., Cicione, C., Samartzis, D., ... Lotz, J. (2021). Development of a standardized histopathology scoring system for human intervertebral disc degeneration: an Orthopaedic Research Society Spine Section Initiative. JOR Spine, e1167. http://doi.org/10.1002/jsp2.1167

Alaswad, H., Mahbub, A., Le Maitre, C., & Jordan-Mahy, N. (2021). Molecular Action of Polyphenols in Leukaemia and Their Therapeutic Potential. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 22 (6). http://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22063085

Nichol, T., Callaghan, J., Townsend, R., Stockley, I., Hatton, P.V., Le Maitre, C., ... Akid, R. (2021). The antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility of a controlled gentamicin-releasing single-layer sol-gel coating on hydroxyapatite-coated titanium. The Bone & Joint Journal, 103-B (3), 522-529. http://doi.org/10.1302/0301-620x.103b3.bjj-2020-0347.r1

Poillot, P., Le Maitre, C., & Huyghe, J.M. (2021). The strain-generated electrical potential in cartilaginous tissues: a role for piezoelectricity. Biophysical Reviews, 13 (1), 91-100. http://doi.org/10.1007/s12551-021-00779-9

Snuggs, J.W., Tessier, S., Bunning, R.A.B., Shapiro, I.M., Risbud, M.V., & Le Maitre, C. (2021). TonEBP regulates the hyperosmotic expression of aquaporin 1 and 5 in the intervertebral disc. Scientific Reports, 11 (1), 3164. http://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-81838-9

Snuggs, J.W., Bunning, R., & Le Maitre, C.L. (2021). Osmotic adaptation of nucleus pulposus cells: The role of aquaporin 1, aquaporin 4 and transient receptor potential vanilloid 4. eCells and Materials Journal, 41, 121-141. http://doi.org/10.22203/eCM

Baumgartner, L., Wuertz-Kozak, K., Le Maitre, C.L., Wignall, F., Richardson, S.M., Hoyland, J., ... Noailly, J. (2021). Multiscale Regulation of the Intervertebral Disc: Achievements in Experimental, in Silico, and Regenerative Research. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 22 (2), e703. http://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020703

Dahia, C.L., & Le Maitre, C.L. (2020). Improving reproducibility in spine research. JOR Spine, 3 (3), e1127. http://doi.org/10.1002/jsp2.1127

Rustenburg, C.M.E., Snuggs, J.W., Emanuel, K.S., Thorpe, A., Sammon, C., Le Maitre, C., & Smit, T.H. (2020). Modelling the catabolic environment of the moderately degenerated disc with a caprine ex vivo loaded disc culture system. European cells & materials, 40, 21-37. http://doi.org/10.22203/eCM.v040a02

Binch, A., Snuggs, J., & Le Maitre, C. (2020). Immunohistochemical analysis of protein expression in formalin fixed paraffin embedded human intervertebral disc tissues. JOR SPINE, e1098. http://doi.org/10.1002/jsp2.1098

Mardling, P., Alderson, A., Jordan-Mahy, N., & Le Maitre, C. (2020). The use of auxetic materials in tissue engineering. Biomaterials Science. http://doi.org/10.1039/c9bm01928f

Lama, P., Claireaux, H., Flower, L., Harding, I.J., Dolan, T., Le Maitre, C., & Adams, M.A. (2019). Physical disruption of intervertebral disc promotes cell clustering and a degenerative phenotype. Cell Death Discovery, 5 (1), 154. http://doi.org/10.1038/s41420-019-0233-z

Bach, F.C., de Rooij, K.M., Riemers, F.M., Snuggs, J.W., de Jong, W.A.M., Zhang, Y., ... Tryfonidou, M.A. (2019). Hedgehog proteins and parathyroid hormone‐related protein are involved in intervertebral disc maturation, degeneration, and calcification. JOR Spine, e1071. http://doi.org/10.1002/jsp2.1071

Palubeckaitė, I., Crooks, L., Smith, D., Cole, L., Bram, H., Le Maitre, C., ... Cross, N.A. (2019). Mass spectrometry imaging of endogenous metabolites in response to doxorubicin in a novel 3D osteosarcoma cell culture model. Journal of Mass Spectrometry. http://doi.org/10.1002/jms.4461

Vickers, L., Thorpe, A.A., Snuggs, J., Sammon, C., & Le Maitre, C.L. (2019). Mesenchymal stem cell therapies for intervertebral disc degeneration: consideration of the degenerate niche. JOR Spine, e1055. http://doi.org/10.1002/jsp2.1055

Johnson, Z.I., Doolittle, A.C., Snuggs, J.W., Shapiro, I.M., Le Maitre, C., & Risbud, M.V. (2017). TNF-α Promotes Nuclear Enrichment of TonEBP/NFAT5 to Selectively Control Inflammatory but not Osmoregulatory Responses in Nucleus Pulposus Cells. The Journal of biological chemistry, 292 (42), 17561-17575. http://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M117.790378

Thorpe, A., Dougill, G., Vickers, L., Reeves, N., Cooper, G., Sammon, C., & Le Maitre, C. (2017). Thermally Triggered Hydrogel Injection Into Bovine Intervertebral Disc Tissue Explants Induces Differentiation Of Mesenchymal Stem Cells And Restores Mechanical Function. Acta Biomaterialia, 54, 212-226. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2017.03.010

Thorpe, A., Creasey, S., Sammon, C., & Le Maitre, C. (2016). Hydroxyapatite nanoparticle injectable hydrogel scaffold to support osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. European Cells and Materials, 32, 1-23. http://www.ecmjournal.org/journal/papers/vol032/vol032a01.php

Zaini, R., Haywood-Small, S., Cross, N., & Le Maitre, C. (2015). Differential interactions of Falcarinol combined with anti-tumour agents on cellular proliferation and apoptosis in human lymphoid leukaemia cell lines. Journal of Blood Disorders and Transfusion, 6 (2). http://doi.org/10.4172/2155-9864.1000258

Mader, K.T., Le Maitre, C.L., & Sammon, C. (2014). Characterisation of intervertebral discs using MID-IR spectroscopic imaging. Global Spine Journal, 4, 58. http://doi.org/10.1055/s-0034-1376632

Lama, P., Le Maitre, C., Dolan, P., Tarlton, J.F., Harding, I.J., & Adams, M.A. (2013). Do intervertebral discs degenerate before they herniate, or after? The Bone & Joint Journal, 95-B (8), 1127-1133. http://doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.95B8.31660

Wang, J., Tian, Y., Phillips, K.L.E., Chiverton, N., Haddock, G., Bunning, R., ... Risbud, M.V. (2013). Tumor necrosis factor α- and interleukin-1β-dependent induction of CCL3 expression by nucleus pulposus cells promotes macrophage migration through CCR1. Arthritis & rheumatism, 65 (3), 832-842. http://doi.org/10.1002/art.37819

Dahlawi, H., Jordan-Mahy, N., Clench, M., McDougall, G.J., & Le Maitre, C. (2013). Polyphenols are responsible for the proapoptotic properties of pomegranate juice on leukemia cell lines. Food Science and Nutrition, 1 (2), 196-208. http://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.26

Phillips, K.L.E., Chiverton, N., Michael, A.L.R., Cole, A.A., Breakwell, L.M., Haddock, G., ... Le Maitre, C.L. (2013). The cytokine and chemokine expression profile of nucleus pulposus cells: implications for degeneration and regeneration of the intervertebral disc. Arthritis research & therapy, 15 (6), R213. http://doi.org/10.1186/ar4408

Lama, P., Le Maitre, C.L., Dolan, P., Tarlton, J.F., Harding, L.J., & Adams, M.A. (2013). Do intervertebral discs degenerate before they herniate, or after? BONE & JOINT JOURNAL, 95B (8), 1127-1133. http://doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.95138.31660

Wang, H., Tian, Y., Wang, J., Phillips, K.L.E., Binch, A.L.A., Dunn, S., ... Risbud, M.V. (2013). Inflammatory cytokines induce NOTCH signaling in nucleus pulposus cells: implications in intervertebral disc degeneration. The Journal of biological chemistry, 288 (23), 16761-74. http://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M112.446633

Lama, P., Le Maitre, C.L., Dolan, P., Tarlton, J.F., Harding, I.J., & Adams, M.A. (2013). Do intervertebral discs degenerate before they herniate, or after? Bone and Joint Journal, 95 B (8), 1127-1133. http://doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.95B8.31660

Dahlawi, H., Jordan-Mahy, N., Clench, M., & Le Maitre, C. (2012). Bioactive actions of pomegranate fruit extracts on leukemia cell lines In vitro hold promise for new therapeutic agents for leukemia. Nutrition and Cancer, 64 (1), 100-110. http://doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2012.630155

Zaini, R.G., Brandt, K., Clench, M., & Le Maitre, C. (2012). Effects of bioactive compounds from carrots (Daucus carota L.), polyacetylenes, beta-carotene and lutein on human lymphoid leukaemia cells. Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry, 12 (6), 640-652.

Dunn, S.L., Wilkinson, J.M., Crawford, A., Le Maitre, C., & Bunning, R.A.D. (2012). Cannabinoids: novel therapies for arthritis? Future Medicinal Chemistry, 4 (6), 713-725. http://doi.org/10.4155/fmc.12.20

Zaini, R., Clench, M., & Le Maitre, C. (2011). Bioactive chemicals from carrot (Daucus carota) juice extracts for the treatment of leukemia. Journal of Medicinal Food, 14 (11), 1-10. http://doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2010.0284

Le Maitre, C.L., Freemont, A.J., & Hoyland, J.A. (2009). Expression of cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein in human intervertebral discs and its effect on matrix synthesis in degenerate human nucleus pulposus cells. Arthritis research & therapy, 11 (5), R137. http://doi.org/10.1186/ar2808

Le Maitre, C.L., Fotheringham, A.P., Freemont, A.J., & Hoyland, J.A. (2009). Development of an in vitro model to test the efficacy of novel therapies for IVD degeneration. Journal of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, 3 (6), 461-469. http://doi.org/10.1002/term.180

Le Maitre, C.L., Baird, P., Freemont, A.J., & Hoyland, J.A. (2009). An in vitro study investigating the survival and phenotype of mesenchymal stem cells following injection into nucleus pulposus tissue. Arthritis research & therapy, 11 (1), R20. http://doi.org/10.1186/ar2611

Le Maitre, C.L., Frain, J., Millward-Sadler, J., Fotheringham, A.P., Freemont, A.J., & Hoyland, J.A. (2009). Altered integrin mechanotransduction in human nucleus pulposus cells derived from degenerated discs. Arthritis & rheumatism, 60 (2), 460-469. http://doi.org/10.1002/art.24248

Pockert, A.J., Richardson, S.M., Le Maitre, C.L., Lyon, M., Deakin, J.A., Freemont, A.J., & Hoyland, J.A. (2009). Modified expression of the ADAMTS enzymes and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3 during human intervertebral disc degeneration. Arthritis & rheumatism, 60 (2), 482-491. http://doi.org/10.1002/art.24291

Heathfield, S.K., Le Maitre, C.L., & Hoyland, J.A. (2008). Caveolin-1 expression and stress-induced premature senescence in human intervertebral disc degeneration. Arthritis research & therapy, 10 (4), R87. http://doi.org/10.1186/ar2468

Le Maitre, C.L., Frain, J., Fotheringham, A.P., Freemont, A.J., & Hoyland, J.A. (2008). Human cells derived from degenerate intervertebral discs respond differently to those derived from non-degenerate intervertebral discs following application of dynamic hydrostatic pressure. Biorheology, 45 (5), 563-575. http://doi.org/10.3233/BIR-2008-0498

Ali, R., Le Maitre, C., Richardson, S., Hoyland, J., & Freemont, A. (2008). Connective tissue growth factor expression in human intervertebral disc: implications for angiogenesis in intervertebral disc degeneration. Biotechnic & Histochemistry, 83 (5), 239-245. http://doi.org/10.1080/10520290802539186

Hoyland, J.A., Le Maitre, C., & Freemont, A.J. (2008). Investigation of the role of IL-1 and TNF in matrix degradation in the intervertebral disc. Rheumatology, 47 (6), 809-814. http://doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/ken056

Le Maitre, C., Hoyland, J.A., & Freemont, A.J. (2007). Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist delivered directly and by gene therapy inhibits matrix degradation in the intact degenerate human intervertebral disc: an in situ zymographic and gene therapy study. Arthritis research & therapy, 9 (4), R83. http://doi.org/10.1186/ar2282

Saunders, J.M., Tong, T., Le Maitre, C., Freemont, T.J., & Saunders, B.R. (2007). A study of pH-responsive microgel dispersions: from fluid-to-gel transitions to mechanical property restoration for load-bearing tissue. Soft Matter, 3 (4), 486-494. http://doi.org/10.1039/B613943D

Lally, S., Mackenzie, P., LeMaitre, C.L., Freemont, T.J., & Saunders, B.R. (2007). Microgel particles containing methacrylic acid: pH-triggered swelling behaviour and potential for biomaterial application. Journal of colloid and interface science, 316 (2), 367-375. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2007.08.030

Le Maitre, C.L., Pockert, A., Buttle, D.J., Freemont, A.J., & Hoyland, J.A. (2007). Matrix synthesis and degradation in human intervertebral disc degeneration. Biochemical Society transactions, 35 (Pt 4), 652-655. http://doi.org/10.1042/BST0350652

Le Maitre, C.L., Hoyland, J.A., & Freemont, A.J. (2007). Catabolic cytokine expression in degenerate and herniated human intervertebral discs: IL-1β and TNFα expression profile. Arthritis research & therapy, 9 (4), R77. http://doi.org/10.1186/ar2275

Le Maitre, C.L., Freemont, A.J., & Hoyland, J.A. (2007). Accelerated cellular senescence in degenerate intervertebral discs: a possible role in the pathogenesis of intervertebral disc degeneration. Arthritis research & therapy, 9 (3), R45. http://doi.org/10.1186/ar2198

Le Maitre, C.L., Freemont, A.J., & Hoyland, J.A. (2006). Human disc degeneration is associated with increased MMP 7 expression. Biotechnic & Histochemistry, 81 (4-6), 125-131. http://doi.org/10.1080/10520290601005298

Le Maitre, C.L., Freemont, A.J., & Hoyland, J.A. (2006). A preliminary in vitro study into the use of IL-1Ra gene therapy for the inhibition of intervertebral disc degeneration. International Journal Of Experimental Pathology, 87 (1), 17-28. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.0959-9673.2006.00449.x

Le Maitre, C.L., Richardson, S.M.A., Baird, P., Freemont, A.J., & Hoyland, J.A. (2005). Expression of receptors for putative anabolic growth factors in human intervertebral disc: implications for repair and regeneration of the disc. The Journal of Pathology, 207 (4), 445-452. http://doi.org/10.1002/path.1862

Le Maitre, C.L., Freemont, A.J., & Hoyland, J.A. (2005). The role of interleukin-1 in the pathogenesis of human intervertebral disc degeneration. Arthritis Research & Therapy, 7 (4), R732-R745. http://doi.org/10.1186/ar1732

Le Maitre, C.L., Freemont, A.J., & Hoyland, J.A. (2004). Localization of degradative enzymes and their inhibitors in the degenerate human intervertebral disc. The Journal of Pathology, 204 (1), 47-54. http://doi.org/10.1002/path.1608

Le Maitre, C.L., Hoyland, J.A., & Freemont, A.J. (2004). Studies of human intervertebral disc cell function in a constrained in vitro tissue culture system. Spine, 29 (11), 1187-1195.

Freemont, A.J., Watkins, A., Le Maitre, C., Baird, P., Jeziorska, M., Knight, M.T.N., ... Hoyland, J.A. (2002). Nerve growth factor expression and innervation of the painful intervertebral disc. The Journal of Pathology, 197 (3), 286-292. http://doi.org/10.1002/path.1108

Freemont, A.J., Watkins, A., Le Maitre, C., Jeziorska, M., & Hoyland, J.A. (2002). Current understanding of cellular and molecular events in intervertebral disc degeneration: implications for therapy. The Journal of Pathology, 196 (4), 374-379. http://doi.org/10.1002/path.1050

Le Maitre, C.L., Byers, R.J., Liu Yin, J.A., Hoyland, J.A., & Freemont, A.J. (2001). Dual colour FISH in paraffin wax embedded bone trephines for identification of numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities in acute myeloid leukaemia and myelodysplasia. Journal of clinical pathology, 54 (9), 730-733.

Freemont, T.J., Le Maitre, C., Watkins, A., & Hoyland, J.A. (2001). Degeneration of intervertebral discs: current understanding of cellular and molecular events, and implications for novel therapies. Expert reviews in molecular medicine, 3 (11), 1-10. http://doi.org/10.1017/S1462399401002885

Conference papers

Shafiq, S., Evans, H., Le Maitre, C., Hall, J., & Aberdein, N. (2019). Leptin differentially remodels vertebrae and tibia trabecular bone independent of load in vivo(abstract only). In Physiology 2019, Aberdeen, UK, 8 July 2019 - 10 July 2019 (pp. 197-198). The Physiological Society: https://www.physoc.org/abstracts/leptin-differentially-remodels-vertebrae-and-tibia-trabecular-bone-independent-of-load-in-vivo/

Kasaragod, D., Lu, Z., Le Maitre, C., Wilkinson, J.M., & Matcher, S. (2013). Investigation of polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography towards the study of microstructure of articular cartilage. Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE, 8571. http://doi.org/10.1117/12.2006831

Barthrop, B., Boyes, V.L., Sabnis, S., Chiverton, N., Cole, A., Michael, A.R., ... Le Maitre, C.L. (2012). Injectable Hydrogel Delivery System for Mesenchymal Stem Cell Delivery to the Degenerate Intervertebral Disc. JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY, 228, S17.

Daniels, J., Phillips, K.L., Cole, A., Michael, A., Breakwell, L., Chiverton, N., & Le Maitre, C.L. (2012). Differential Intracellular Signalling Pathways Induced by IL-1 and CDMP-1 in Human Nucleus Pulposus Cells, and their Potential as Therapeutic Targets. JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY, 228, S17.

Phillips, K.L.E., Chiverton, N., Cole, A., Michael, A., Breakwell, L., Haddock, G., ... Le Maitre, C.L. (2012). Interleukin-1 Regulates Chemokine Expression in the Human Intervertebral Disc. JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY, 228, S30.

Phillips, K.L.E., Chiverton, N., Cole, A., Michael, A., Breakwell, L., Haddock, G., ... Le Maitre, C.L. (2012). Chemokines and their Receptors in the Human Intervertebral Disc. JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY, 228, S30.

Estevao, A.C.B., Phillips, K.L.E., Chiverton, N., Cole, A., Michael, A., Breakwell, L., ... Le Maitre, C.L. (2012). CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL3 in the Pathogenesis of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration. JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY, 228, S30.

Langley, J., Le Maitre, C., Vernon-Parry, K., Lockley, E., Westerman, J., Smith, J., ... Choppin, S. (2012). Being interdisciplinary..... creating a culture for the academics of tomorrow. In Understanding Interdisciplinarity: theory and practice - An International Conference, Sheffield, 12 June 2012 - 14 June 2012.

Phillips, K.L.E., Chiverton, N., Bunning, R.D., Haddock, G., Cross, A.K., & Le Maitre, C.L. (2012). CYTOKINE AND CHEMOKINE EXPRESSION PROFILE IN HUMAN INTERVERTEBRAL DISC DEGENERATION. RHEUMATOLOGY, 51, 147.

Daniels, J., Phillips, K.L.E., Chiverton, N., & Le Maitre, C.L. (2012). INTRACELLULAR SIGNALLING MECHANISMS INDUCED BY IL-1 IN HUMAN NUCLEUS PULPOSUS CELLS. RHEUMATOLOGY, 51, 145.

Phillips, K.L.E., Cross, A., Chiverton, N., Haddock, G., Bunning, R.A.D., & Le Maitre, C.L. (2012). ROLE OF CYTOKINES AND CHEMOKINES IN HUMAN INTERVERTEBRAL DISC DEGENERATION. RHEUMATOLOGY, 51, 147.

Le Maitre, C., Covington, J., Dove, A., Bon, S., & Hoyland, J. (2008). Tailored lithographic fabrication of a cell-seeded polymeric intervertebral disc: A novel therapy for intervertebral disc degeneration. 8th World Biomaterials Congress 2008, 4, 2284.

Le Maitre, C.L., Pockert, A., Freemont, A.J., & Hoyland, J.A. (2007). Matrix synthesis and degradation in human intervertebral disc degeneration. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PATHOLOGY, 88 (6), A80-A81.

Pockert, A.J., Le Maitre, C.L., Buttle, D.J., Freemont, A.J., & Hoyland, J.A. (2006). The expression of the aggrecanolytic ADAMTSs and their endogenous inhibitor TIMP-3 in human intervertebral discs. JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY, 210, 24.

Le Maitre, C.L., Freemont, A.J., & Hoyland, J.A. (2006). Matrix Metalloproteinase production is inhibited in degenerate intervertebral discs by IL-1Ra gene transfer. JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY, 210, 2.

Frain, J., Le Maitre, C.L., Fotheringham, A.P., Freemont, A.J., & Hoyland, J.A. (2006). Investigating the effects of hydrostatic pressure on nucleus pulposus cell gene expression in short-term alginate culture. JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY, 210, 5.

Le Maitre, C.L., Freemont, A.J., & Hoyland, J.A. (2006). Immunolocalisation of matrix metalloproteinase 7 in human intervertebral discs (IVD). JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY, 210, 23.

Frain, J., Le Maitre, C.L., Freemont, A.J., & Hoyland, J.A. (2006). Expression of alpha(5)beta(1) integrin in paraffin-embedded human normal and degenerate disc tissue. JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY, 210, 4.

Le Maitre, C.L., Freemont, A.J., & Hoyland, J.A. (2006). Cytokine involvement in the pathogenesis of disc degeneration: IL-1 or TNF alpha? JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY, 210, 56.

Le Maitre, C.L., Freemont, A.J., & Hoyland, J.A. (2006). Accelerated cellular senescence in human intervertebral disc degeneration. JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY, 210, 56.

Le Maitre, C.L., Frain, J.F., Fotheringham, A.P., Freemont, A.J., & Hoyland, J.A. (2006). A novel loading rig to mimic the in vivo environment of the human intervertebral disc. JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY, 210, 28.

Le Maitre, C.L., Khan, A., Freemont, A.J., & Hoyland, J.A. (2006). Cartilage derived growth factor as a possible growth factor to regenerate the degenerate IVD. RHEUMATOLOGY, 45, I82.

Le Maitre, C.L., Freemont, A.J., & Hoyland, J.A. (2006). Accelerated senescence in human intervertebral disc degeneration. RHEUMATOLOGY, 45, I82.

Pockert, A.J., Le Maitre, C.L., Buttle, D.J., Freemont, A.J., & Hoyland, J.A. (2006). Gene expression of aggrecanolytic ADAMTS and TIMP-3 in the human intervertebral disc. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PATHOLOGY, 87 (1), A19.

Richardson, S., Le Maitre, C.L., Russell, A., Rice, J., Hunt, J., Freemont, A.J., & Hoyland, J.A. (2004). Human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells as a source of chondrocytes for tissue engineering of the human intervertebral disc. Transactions - 7th World Biomaterials Congress, 147.

Le Maitre, C.L., Rothwell, N.J., Freemont, A.J., & Hoyland, J.A. (2004). Ex vivo IL-IRa gene therapy for disc degeneration. JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY, 204, 12A.

Le Maitre, C.L., Baird, P., Williamson, B., Ross, R., Freemont, A.J., & Hoyland, J.A. (2003). Expression of the IL-1 family in human interverebral disc. JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY, 201, 57A.

Le Maitre, C.L., Williamson, B., Ross, R., Freemont, A.J., & Hoyland, J.A. (2003). Response of human intervertebral disc cells to IL-1. JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY, 201, 56A.

Richardson, S., le Maitre, C.L., Russell, A., Greenway, E., Li, Y., Freemont, A.J., & Hoyland, J.A. (2003). Human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells as a source of chondrocytes for treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration. European Cells and Materials, 6 (SUPPL. 2), 20.

Sharma, P., El Haj, A., Maffulli, N., Hoyland, J., & le Maitre, C. (2003). Ion channel expresion in intervertebral disc cells. European Cells and Materials, 6 (SUPPL. 2), 50.

Le Maitre, C.L., Richardson, S.M.A., Baird, P., Williamson, B., Ross, R., Freemont, A.J., & Hoyland, J.A. (2003). IL-1; Role in degeneration of the intervertebral disc and its inhibition using IL-1 Ra gene transfer. MOLECULAR THERAPY, 7 (5), S405.

Le Maitre, C.L., Williamson, B., Ross, R., Freemont, A.J., & Hoyland, J.A. (2003). RESPONSE OF HUMAN INTERVERTEBRAL DISC CELLS TO IL-1. RHEUMATOLOGY, 42, 40.

Le Maitre, C.L., Williamson, B., Ross, R., Freemont, A.J., & Hoyland, J.A. (2003). CULTURE SYSTEM FOR THE MAINTENANCE OF HUMAN INTERVERTEBRAL DISC TISSUE. RHEUMATOLOGY, 42, 40-41.

Le Maitre, C.L., Baird, P., Williamson, B., Ross, R., Freemont, A.J., & Hoyland, J.A. (2003). EXPRESSION OF THE IL-1 FAMILY IN HUMAN INTERVEREBRAL DISC. RHEUMATOLOGY, 42, 40.

Omorphos, S., Hoyland, J.A., Le Maitre, C.L., Yin, J.A.L., Lucas, G.S., & Byers, R.J. (2002). Systemically transplanted bone marrow gives rise to osteoblasts and osteocytes in vivo. JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY, 198, 12A.

Hundal, K., Watkins, A., Le Maitre, C.L., Freemont, A.J., & Hoyland, J.A. (2002). Chondrocyte senescence in intervertebral disc degeneration. JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY, 198, 51A.

Grieve, F.M., Jones, C.J., Le Maitre, C.L., Staley, W.A., Hoyland, J.A., & Byers, R.J. (2002). Chonrogenic transdifferentiation during osteoblastic differentiation of marrow stromal cells. BONE, 30 (3), 4S.

Sive, J.I., Baird, P., Le Maitre, C.L., Hoyland, J.A., & Freemont, A.J. (2001). Investigation into the chondrocytic phenotype and pattern of aggrecan distribution in cells of the normal and degenerate intervertebral disc. JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY, 195, 37A.

Grieve, F.M., Jones, C.J., Le Maitre, C.L., Staley, W.A., Hoyland, J.A., & Byers, R.J. (2001). Chondrogenic transdifferentiation during osteoblastic differentiation of marrow stromal cells. JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY, 195, 10A.

Le Maitre, C.L., Rajpura, A., Staley, W., Byers, R.J., Knight, M., Ross, R., ... Hoyland, J.A. (2001). In vitro gene transfer to human intervertebral disc chondrocytes by an adenovirus vector. RHEUMATOLOGY, 40, 13.

Le Maitre, C.L., Rajpura, A., Staley, W., Byers, R.J., Knight, M., Ross, R., ... Hoyland, J.A. (2001). In vitro gene transfer to human intervertebral disc chondrocytes by an adenovirus vector. JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY, 193, 1A.

Le Maitre, C.L., Byers, R.J., Yin, J.A.L., Hoyland, J.A., & Freemont, A.J. (1999). Dual-colour FISH interphase cytogenetics in paraffin embedded bone marrow trephines. JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY, 189, 9A.

Byers, R.J., Le Maitre, C.L., Wood, P., Staley, W., Freemont, A.J., & Hoyland, J.A. (1999). 14-3-3 zeta is upregulated during early osteoblastic differentiation. JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY, 189, 11A.

Theses / Dissertations

Beleid, G.A.Y. (2019). Development of 3-Dimensional skin infection models for the evaluation of antimicrobial strategies. (Doctoral thesis). Supervised by Le Maitre, C. http://doi.org/10.7190/shu-thesis-00238

Snuggs, J. (2019). Aquaporin Expression, Regulation and Function in theIntervertebral Disc. (Doctoral thesis). Supervised by Le Maitre, C. http://doi.org/10.7190/shu-thesis-00273

Dosh, R. (2018). Developing models of the small intestine. (Doctoral thesis). Supervised by Le Maitre, C. http://doi.org/10.7190/shu-thesis-00131

Mahbub, A.A.-.H. (2015). The anti-cancer potential of polyphenols in the treatment of leukaemia. (Doctoral thesis). Supervised by Jordan-Mahy, N., Cross, N., Le Maitre, C., & Haywood-Small, S.

Phillips, K. (2013). Cytokines and chemokines in the pathogenesis of low back pain. (Doctoral thesis). Supervised by Le Maitre, C., Cross, A., Bunning, R., & Haddock, G.

Dahlawi, H. (2013). Effect of pomegranate extracts on apoptosis and cell cycle in haematological malignancies. (Doctoral thesis). Supervised by Le Maitre, C., & Jordan-Mahy, N.

Dunn, S.L. (2013). The effect of cannabinoids on IL-1beta induced catabolic pathways in osteoathritic chondrocytes. (Doctoral thesis). Supervised by Bunning, R., & Le Maitre, C.

Other activities

- Editor: Scientific Reports
- Advisory board member - Journal of Orthopaedic Research - Spine
- Advisory board member - Biomaterials Science (RSC Journal)
- Chairlady for DISCs
- Orthopaedic research society Spine section Chair
- Versus Arthritis Mechanisms lead in Musculoskeletal advisory board.
- Elected officer society of back pain research.

Postgraduate supervision

Christine is and experienced research supervisory with 15 completions and 8 current doctoral students. Doctoral students span the areas of research described above. With 4 postdoctoral researchers on a number of research grants.

Link: https://www.shu.ac.uk/biomolecular-sciences-research-centre/news/news-listing-page/prof-christine-le-maitre-finalist-for-outstanding-research-supervisor-of-the-year.

The effects of cannabinoids on chondrocyte metabolism: Supervisors: Director of studies: Bunning RAD, Supervisors: Le Maitre CL, Crawford A. Advisor M Wilkinson: October 2010-Feburary 2014.
Pomegranate Juice and its potential for Treatment of Leukaemia. Director of studies: Le Maitre CL. Supervisors: Jordan Mahy NJ, Clench MR. March 2009-October 2013.
PhD Studentship: Nutraceutical polyacetylenes and leukaemia. Director of studies: Le Maitre CL, Supervisor: Clench MR. March 2009-July 2013.
Role of Cytokines and Chemokines in the Pathogenesis of Low Back Pain. Director of studies: Le Maitre CL, Supervisors: Cross A, Bunning RAD, Advisor: Haddock G. October 2009- January 2013.
Examination of the effect of polyphenols isolated from Rheum Spp. on haematological malignancies Director of Studies: Jordan-Mahy N, Supervisors: Cross N, Haywood Small S, McDougall G. Advisor Le Maitre CL. October 2010-September 2014.
Regulation of Discogenic Pain by Cytokines and Chemokines within the degenerate disc. Director of Studies: CL Le Maitre, Supervisors A Cross, N Chiverton. September 2012-August 2015.
MMU PhD studentship: Mechanical analysis of Low Back Pain & Novel Stem Cell Treatment. Dirrector of Studies: G Cooper (MMU), Supervisors: N Reeves (MMU), C Le Maitre (SHU). September 2012-August 2015.

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