Tony is a Senior Research Fellow in CRESR. He has extensive experience of research and evaluation on urban and regional issues, and is an acknowledged expert on labour market disadvantage, economic development, policy integration and the geographies of governance.
Recent research projects include evaluation of a range of policy interventions, including the UK industrial strategy, youth support in accessing the labour market, the economic, community and social inclusion impacts of improving urban green space, and the use of procurement agreements and transport innovations to enhance access to work and training opportunities for disadvantaged job seekers. He has also undertaken evidence and scoping reviews of youth worklessness, transport barriers to employment and the potential role of urban green space in stimulating wider economic activity. In addition, he is continuing his research on collaborative governance arrangements between policy domains and across local and regional boundaries started in the 2000s.
Tony is a key member of the CRESR data analysis and policy team, helping to develop its capacity in utilising a wide range of regional, local and neighbourhood level statistics and a suite of GIS techniques. This has included quinquennial estimation of 'hidden unemployment' in local authority areas of Great Britain since 1997; tracking parallel trends in economic growth and prosperity across local economies in England; estimates of the size of the English seaside tourist economy by resort; the valuation of benefits and impacts from regeneration programmes and projects; and the evolution of intermunicipal associations in Spain.
He is a member of several academic and professional bodies
- Royal Geographical Society/Institute of British Geographers (Fellow)
- Regional Studies Association
- Royal Town Planning Institute
- IGU Commission Geography of Governance (corresponding member).
He is currently book reviews editor for the open access online journal People, Place and Policy (PPP). He is also a member of the editorial board of Planning Practice and Research, and acts as referee and book reviewer for the Journal of Common Market Studies, European Planning Studies, Local Economy, Regional Studies and Urban Studies.
- geographies of cross-boundary and multi-level governance arrangements and practices
- methods and practice of policy integration and co-ordination
- industrial strategy and the revival of manufacturing
- employment policy and its associated funding mechanisms
- geography of labour markets and economic development
- the future management of urban green space.
- Centre for Regional Economic and Social Research
2017-2018 Addressing transport barriers to work in low income neighbourhoods. Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Role: Team member.
2017-2018 Industrial Strategy and the Regions: Deliverable and effective policies. The Labour Party. Role: Team member.
2016-2018 Evaluation of the Tesco Bags of Help Community Grants Scheme. Groundwork UK. Role: Team member.
2016-2018 Evaluation of the Green Leaders Programme. Groundwork UK. Role: Team member.
2013-2019 Evaluation of the Talent Match programme to tackle youth unemployment, Big Lottery Fund. Role: Team member.
Fothergill, S., Gore, T., & Wells, P. (2019). Industrial strategy and the UK regions: Sectorally narrow and spatially blind. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 12 (3), 445-466. http://doi.org/10.1093/cjres/rsz016
Gore, T. (2018). Cities and their hinterlands 10 years on: Local and regional governance still under debate. People, Place and Policy Online, 11 (3), 150-164. http://doi.org/10.3351/ppp.2017.2566876563
Ferrari, E. (2016). Wacquant and the Decline of Public Institutions: The Need for a More Contingent Analysis? People Place and Policy, 10 (2), 179-180. http://doi.org/10.3351/ppp.0010.0002.0004
Gore, T. (2015). Interpreting the contemporary world of work : two-tier polarisation or complex relational formations? (Book review article). People Place and Policy, 9 (3), 190-198. http://doi.org/10.3351/ppp.0009.0003.0003
Crisp, R., Gore, T., & Pearson, S. (2015). Rethinking the impact of regeneration on poverty: a (partial) defence of a 'failed' policy. Journal of Poverty and Social Justice, 23 (3), 167-187. http://doi.org/10.1332/175982715X14443317211905
Crisp, R., Eadson, W., Cole, I., Dayson, C., Escott, K., Fothergill, S., ... Robinson, D. (2015). Election commentaries. People, Place and Policy, 9 (1), 65-89. http://doi.org/10.3351/ppp.0009.0001.0005
Gore, T. (2014). The role of policy champions and learning in implementing horizontal environmental policy integration : comparative insights from European Structural Fund programmes in the U.K. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 4 (3), 304-330. http://doi.org/10.3390/admsci4030304
Gore, T., & Wells, P. (2009). Governance and evaluation : the case of EU regional policy horizontal priorities. Evaluation and Program Planning, 32 (2), 158-167. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2008.10.007
Gore, T., & Hollywood, E. (2009). The role of social networks and geographical location in labour market participation in the UK coalfields. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 27 (6), 1008-1021. http://doi.org/10.1068/c0850
Gore, T. (2008). Collaborative governance and territorial rescaling in the UK : a comparative study of two EU Structural Funds programmes. GeoJournal, 72 (1-2), 59-73. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10708-008-9165-5
Gore, T., & Fothergill, S. (2007). Cities and their hinterlands: how much do governancestructures really matter? People, Place and Policy Online, 1 (2), 55-68. http://doi.org/10.3351/ppp.0001.0002.0002
Gore, T., Powell, R., & Wells, P. (2006). The contribution of rural community businesses to integrated rural development: local services for local people. Cahiers d'economie et sociologie rurales, 80 (3), 29-52. http://www.inra.fr/esr/publications/cahiers/pdf/gore.pdf
Gore, T. (2005). Extending employability or solving employers' recruitment problems? Demand-led approaches as an instrument of labour market policy. Urban studies, 42 (2), 341-353. http://doi.org/10.1080/0042098042000316182
Gore, T. (2004). The open method of co-ordination and policy mainstreaming: the european employment strategy and regional conversion programmes in the UK. European planning studies, 12 (1), 123-141. http://doi.org/10.1080/09654310310001635733
Webber, D.J., & Gore, T. (2002). Dematerialising local economies: a case for ad hoc governance? Local economy, 17 (2), 96-110. http://doi.org/10.1080/02690940210124389
Dabinett, G., & Gore, T. (2001). Institutional influences on EU-funded regional technology development in the UK: a study of the Yorkshire and East London Regions in the 1990s. European planning studies, 9 (8), 995-1010. http://doi.org/10.1080/09654310120093313
Gore, T. (2000). Planning beyond 2000. URBAN STUDIES, 37 (8), 1454-1456.
Dabinett, G., Gore, T., Haywood, R., & Lawless, P. (1999). Transport investment and regeneration. Sheffield: 1992-1997. Transport Policy, 6 (2), 123-134. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-070X(99)00013-X
Lawless, P., & Gore, T. (1999). Urban regeneration and transport investment: A case study of Sheffield 1992-1996. Urban Studies, 36 (3), 527-545. http://doi.org/10.1080/0042098993510
Gore, T., & Stillwell, J. (1994). Updating population and household projections for Yorkshire and Humberside: An input into the strategic planning process. Planning Practice and Research, 9 (4), 381-393. http://doi.org/10.1080/02697459408722944
Gore, T. (1991). Public/private partnership schemes in UK urban regeneration: The role of joint enabling agencies. Cities, 8 (3), 209-216. http://doi.org/10.1016/0264-2751(91)90060-5
Gore, T. (1991). Urban Regeneration and Economic Development: The Local Government Dimension. Planning Practice & Research, 6 (1), 37. http://doi.org/10.1080/02697459108722800
Gore, T. (1991). Location and Labour Considerations for Regional Development. Planning Practice & Research, 6 (3), 32. http://doi.org/10.1080/02697459108722823
Gore, T., & Nicholson, D. (1991). Models of the land-development process: a critical review. Environment & Planning A, 23 (5), 705-730. http://doi.org/10.1068/a230705
Gore, T., & Pollock, A. (1989). The Planning and Management of Rural Resources. Planning Practice & Research, 4 (2), 5-6. http://doi.org/10.1080/02697458908722736
Gore, T., & Nicholson, D. (1985). The analysis of public sector land ownership and development ( South Wales). Land policy: problems and alternatives.
Gore, T., & Webber, D.J. (2017). Dematerializing economies and local growth: A case for ad hoc governance. In European Governance: Policy Making Between Politicization and Control. (pp. 53-67). http://doi.org/10.4324/9781315255941-11
Gore, T., & Jones, C. (2006). Yorkshire and the humber. In The Rise of the English Regions?. (pp. 137-155). http://doi.org/10.4324/9780203421505
Eadson, W., Harris, C., Gore, A., & Dobson, J. (2019). Space to thrive: A rapid evidence review of the benefits of parks and green spaces for people and communities. National Lottery Heritage Fund and National Lottery Community Fund. https://www4.shu.ac.uk/research/cresr/sites/shu.ac.uk/files/space-to-thrive-2019-evidence-review.pdf
Beatty, C., Fothergill, S., & Gore, A. (2019). The state of the coalfields 2019: Economic and social conditions in the former coalfields of England, Scotland and Wales. Sheffield Hallam Universiuty. http://doi.org/10.7190/cresr.2019.6676686343
Beatty, C., Gore, A., & Leather, D. (2019). Labour Market Participation, Skills, and Employment in Rotherham. Sheffield Hallam University. http://doi.org/10.7190/cresr.2019.3478393864
Crisp, R., Ferrari, E., Fothergill, S., Gore, T., & Wells, P. (2019). Strong economies, better places. London: Labour. http://labour.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/11910_18-STRONG-ECONOMIES-BETTER-PLACES-WEB.pdf
Fothergill, S., Gore, T., & Wells, P. (2017). Industrial Strategy and the Regions : the shortcomings of a narrow sectoral focus. Sheffield: Sheffield Hallam University. http://doi.org/10.7190/cresr.2017.3869752946
Crisp, R., Gore, T., & Mccarthy, L. (2017). Addressing transport barriers to work in low income neighbourhoods: A review of evidence and practice. Sheffield: Sheffield Hallam University. http://doi.org/10.7190/cresr.2017.3465773384
Eadson, W., Gore, T., & Povey, L. (2017). Evaluation of Royal College of GPs: Fuel Poverty Pilot. Sheffield: Sheffield Hallam University. http://www4.shu.ac.uk/research/cresr/sites/shu.ac.uk/files/eval-royal-college-gps-fuel-poverty-pilot.pdf
Green, A., Barnes, S.-.A., Gore, A., & Damm, C. (2017). In-work support: What is the role of in-work support in a successful transition to sustained employment? Centre for Regional Economic and Social Research, Sheffield Hallam University. https://www4.shu.ac.uk/research/cresr/sites/shu.ac.uk/files/tm-in-work-support-report.pdf
While, A., Gore, T., Eadson, W., & Crisp, R. (2016). Major development projects: connecting people in poverty to jobs. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation. http://www.jrf.org.uk/
Beatty, C., Crisp, R., & Gore, T. (2016). An inclusive growth monitor for measuring the relationship between poverty and growth. Sheffield: Joseph Rowntree Foundation. http://www4.shu.ac.uk/research/cresr/sites/shu.ac.uk/files/inclusive-growth-monitor-poverty-growth_0.pdf
Crisp, R., & Gore, A. (2016). Inclusive Growth Monitor: Technical Notes. http://www4.shu.ac.uk/research/cresr/sites/shu.ac.uk/files/jrf-inclusive-growth-technical-notes.pdf
Gore, A., Raveney, F., Aylett, H., & Prommer, E. (2016). Where are the Women Directors?
Gore, A., Bamonte, J., Bashir, N., Chowbey, P., Dayson, C., Mubarak, I., & Mccarthy, L. (2016). Increasing the uptake of primary and community long-term conditions services in Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) communities in Nottingham - an exploratory research study. https://www4.shu.ac.uk/research/cresr/ourexpertise/exploratory-research-study-increasing-uptake-primary-and-community-long-term-conditions-services-bla
Eadson, W., Dalgleish, K., Foden, M., & Gore, A. (2014). Low Carbon Leicester and Leicestershire research study. http://www.shu.ac.uk/research/cresr/sites/shu.ac.uk/files/low-carbon-leicester.pdf
Crisp, R., Pearson, S., & Gore, A. (2014). Reducing poverty in the UK: a collection of evidence reviews. http://www.shu.ac.uk/research/cresr/sites/shu.ac.uk/files/reducing-poverty-uk-evidence-reviews.pdf
Beatty, C., Fothergill, S., & Gore, T. (2014). Seaside towns in the age of austerity: recent trends in employment in seaside tourism in England and Wales. Sheffield: Centre for Regional Economic and Social Research, Sheffield Hallam University. https://www4.shu.ac.uk/research/cresr/sites/shu.ac.uk/files/seaside-towns-age-austerity.pdf
Crisp, R., Gore, T., Pearson, S., Tyler, P., Clapham, D., Muir, J., & Robertson, D. (2014). Regeneration and poverty: evidence and policy review. Final report. Sheffield: Centre for Regional Economic and Social Research, Sheffield Hallam University. http://www4.shu.ac.uk/research/cresr/regeneration-and-poverty-evidence-and-policy-review-pdf-126-mb
Gore, T., Eadson, W., Ozdemiroglu, E., Gianferrara, E., & Phang, Z. (2013). Green Infrastructure’s contribution to economic growth: a review. London: eftec.
Beatty, C., Gore, A., Powell, R., & Sanderson, E. (2013). The impact of welfare reform in Hampshire: Executive Summary. Bill Sargeant Trust. http://www.shu.ac.uk/research/cresr/sites/shu.ac.uk/files/impacts-welfare-reform-hampshire-exec.pdf
Beatty, C., Gore, A., Powell, R., & Sanderson, E. (2013). The impact of welfare reform in Hampshire. http://www.shu.ac.uk/research/cresr/sites/shu.ac.uk/files/impacts-welfare-reform-hampshire.pdf
Gore, A., & Fothergill, S. (2013). The Implications for Employment of the Shift to High-Value Manufacturing. http://www.shu.ac.uk/research/cresr/sites/shu.ac.uk/files/implications-employment-shift-manufacturing.pdf
Beatty, C., Fothergill, S., & Gore, T. (2012). The real level of unemployment 2012. Sheffield Hallam University, Centre for Regional Economic and Social Research. http://www.shu.ac.uk/research/cresr/sites/shu.ac.uk/files/real-level-of-unemployment-2012.pdf
Batty, E., Gore, A., & Powell, R. (2011). Participation of Women in the Labour Market in Leicester: Qualitative Follow-up. Leicester & Leicestershire Enterprise Partnership. http://www.shu.ac.uk/research/cresr/sites/shu.ac.uk/files/participation-women-labour-leicester-followup_0.pdf
Beatty, C., Gore, T., & Powell, R. (2011). The Impact of Welfare Reform and Public Sector Spending Reductions on Low Income Households in Hampshire. Sheffield Hallam University, Centre for Regional Economic and Social Research. http://www.shu.ac.uk/research/cresr/sites/shu.ac.uk/files/cresr-PublicSectorCutsHampshireFullReport.pdf
Beatty, C., Gore, A., & Powell, R. (2011). The Impact of Welfare Reform and Public Sector Spending Reductions on Low Income Households in Hampshire: Summary and Key Findings. Sheffield Hallam University, Centre for Regional Economic and Social Research. http://www.shu.ac.uk/research/cresr/sites/shu.ac.uk/files/welfare-reform-low-income-hampshire-summary_0.pdf
Gore, A., Hickman, P., Walshaw, A., Ferrari, E., & Wilson, I. (2011). “The Houses all Look Posh Now” - Evaluating the Impact of a Housing Improvement Programme: The Case of Portobello and Belle Vue. http://www.shu.ac.uk/research/cresr/sites/shu.ac.uk/files/houses-all-look-posh-now.pdf
Gore, A., Ferrari, E., Hickman, P., Wilson, I., & Walshaw, A. (2011). “The Houses all Look Posh Now” - Evaluating the Impact of a Housing Improvement Programme: the Case of Portobello and Belle Vue - Key Findings and Policy Messages. http://www.shu.ac.uk/research/cresr2/sites/shu.ac.uk/files/houses-all-look-posh-now-key-findings.pdf
Beatty, C., Fothergill, S., & Gore, T. (2011). Tackling worklessness in Britain’s weaker local economies. Sheffield Hallam University, Centre for Regional Economic and Social Research. http://www.shu.ac.uk/research/cresr/sites/shu.ac.uk/files/tackling-worklessness-britains-weaker-economies.pdf
Gilbertson, J., Wells, P., Gore, T., & Crowe, M. (2010). Measuring the Big Society? Approaches, problems and suggested improvements. Centre for Regional Economic and Social Research, Sheffield Hallam University. http://www.shu.ac.uk/research/cresr/sites/shu.ac.uk/files/measuring-the-big-society.pdf
Gilbertson, J., Wells, P., Gore, T., & Crowe, M. (2010). A Big Society in Yorkshire and Humber? Centre for Regional Economic and Social Research, Sheffield Hallam University. http://www.shu.ac.uk/research/cresr/sites/shu.ac.uk/files/big-society-yorkshire-and-humber.pdf
Beatty, C., Gore, T., & Powell, R. (2010). Participation of Women in the Labour Market in Leicester. Sheffield Hallam University, Centre for Regional Economic and Social Research. http://www.shu.ac.uk/research/cresr/sites/shu.ac.uk/files/women-in-the-labour-market.pdf
Gore, A., Dayson, C., Eadson, W., Gilbertson, J., Lawless, P., Wilson, I., ... Provins, A. (2010). Assessing the Value and Benefits of Groundwork. Sheffield Hallam University. http://www.shu.ac.uk/research/cresr/sites/shu.ac.uk/files/assessing-value-benefits-groundwork.pdf
Wells, P., Roberts, D., McNeill, T., Crisp, R., & Gore, A. (2010). High Level Skills in Yorkshire and the Humber: Understanding the Drivers of Change - Phase 2 Realist Synthesis. http://www.shu.ac.uk/research/cresr/sites/shu.ac.uk/files/yf-high-level-skills-phase-two-synthesis.pdf
Wells, P., Roberts, D., McNeill, T., Crisp, R., & Gore, A. (2010). High Level Skills in Yorkshire and Humber - Understanding the Drivers of Change: Summary. http://www.shu.ac.uk/research/cresr/sites/shu.ac.uk/files/yf-high-level-skills-y&h-drivers-summary.pdf
Beatty, C., Fothergill, S., Gore, A., & Wilson, I. (2010). The Seaside Tourist Industry in England and Wales. Sheffield Hallam University. http://www.shu.ac.uk/research/cresr/sites/shu.ac.uk/files/seaside-tourist-industry-england-wales.pdf
Wells, P., Roberts, D., McNeill, T., Crisp, R., & Gore, A. (2010). High Level Skills in Yorkshire and Humber: Understanding the Drivers of Change - Phase 1 High Level Skills Context. http://www.shu.ac.uk/research/cresr/sites/shu.ac.uk/files/yf-high-level-skills-phase-one-skills-context.pdf
Crisp, R., Fothergill, S., Gore, A., & Platts-Fowler, D. (2009). Sheffield Worklessness Study. http://www.shu.ac.uk/research/cresr/sites/shu.ac.uk/files/sheffield-worklessness-study.pdf
Gore, A. (2009). Enterprise Zones Monitoring Report 2006/07. Centre for Regional Economic and Social Research, Sheffield Hallam University, Department for Communities and Local Government. http://www.shu.ac.uk/research/cresr/sites/shu.ac.uk/files/enterprise-zones-monitoring-report0607.pdf
Fletcher, D., Gore, T., Macmillan, R., Batty, E., & Pearson, S. (2008). Qualitative evaluation of the Jobseeker Mandatory Activity (JMA). Department for Work and Pensions; Centre for Regional Economic and Social Research, Sheffield Hallam University. http://www.shu.ac.uk/research/cresr/sites/shu.ac.uk/files/qual-evaluation-jobseeker-mandatory-activity.pdf
Beatty, C., Fothergill, S., Gore, A., & Powell, R. (2007). Barrow's Incapacity Claimants. Sheffield Hallam University. https://www4.shu.ac.uk/research/cresr/sites/shu.ac.uk/files/barrows-incapacity-claimants.pdf
Gore, A., Dewson, S., Casebourne, J., Darlow, A., Bickerstaffe, T., Fletcher, D., & Krishnan, S. (2007). Evaluation of the Working Neighbourhoods Pilot: Final report. Sheffield Hallam University. http://www.shu.ac.uk/research/cresr/sites/shu.ac.uk/files/eval-working-neighbourhoods-pilot.pdf
Gore, T., Fothergill, S., Hollywood, E., Lindsay, C., Morgan, K., Powell, R., & Upton, S. (2007). Coalfields and neighbouring cities: economic regeneration, labour markets and governance. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation. https://www.jrf.org.uk/report/coalfields-and-neighbouring-cities-economic-regeneration-labour-markets-and-governance
Beatty, C., Fothergill, S., Gore, T., & Powell, R. (2007). The Real Level of Unemployment 2007. Sheffield Hallam University, Centre for Regional Economic and Social Research. http://www.shu.ac.uk/research/cresr/sites/shu.ac.uk/files/the-real-level-unemployment-2007.pdf
Gore, T. (2005). The CISWO One-stop Shop Project: External Evaluation. Final Report. Rotherham: Coal Industry Social Welfare Organisation.
Gore, A., Wells, P., Hanson, S., Darlow, A., Hill, C., Johnson, S., ... Escott, K. (2004). South Yorkshire Objective 1 Programme Mid Term Evaluation. http://www.shu.ac.uk/research/cresr/sites/shu.ac.uk/files/south-yorks-objective1-midterm-eval_0.pdf
Gore, A., Wells, P., & Powell, R. (2003). The contribution of community businesses to the rural economy of Yorkshire and the Humber. http://www.shu.ac.uk/research/cresr/sites/shu.ac.uk/files/community-businesses-rural-economy-y&h.pdf
Fordham, G., Gore, T., Lawless, P., & Fordham, R.K. (2002). The Groundwork movement: its role in neighbourhood renewal. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation. https://www.jrf.org.uk/report/groundwork-movement-its-role-neighbourhood-renewal
Beatty, C., Fothergill, S., Gore, T., & Green, A. (2002). Hidden Unemployment in the East Midlands. Sheffield Hallam University, Centre for Regional Economic and Social Research. http://www.shu.ac.uk/research/cresr/sites/shu.ac.uk/files/hidden-unemployment-east-midlands.pdf
Beatty, C., Fothergill, S., Gore, T., & Herrington, A. (1997). The Real Level of Unemployment. Sheffield Hallam University - Centre for Regional Economic and Social Research. http://www.shu.ac.uk/research/cresr/sites/shu.ac.uk/files/the-real-level-unemployment-1997.pdf
Theses / Dissertations
Foden, M. (2016). Reclaiming unwanted things: alternative consumption practices, social change and the everyday. (Doctoral thesis). Supervised by Gore, T. http://doi.org/10.7190/shu-thesis-00020
Baker-Green, K. (2013). Community regeneration : The information society in deprived areas of South Yorkshire. (Doctoral thesis). Supervised by Gore, T.
Ruggiero, A. (2013). Transforming sub-national economic governance in England : From competitive regions to competitive city-regions. (Doctoral thesis). Supervised by Wells, P., Gore, T., & Escott, K.
Parker, G.F. (2012). Learning to work : The intermediate labour market response to social exclusion. (Doctoral thesis). Supervised by Gore, T., Lawless, P., & Georgiou, C.
Pearce, S. (2012). Constitutional change and community development : Communities first under the Welsh government. (Doctoral thesis). Supervised by Wells, P., Gore, T., & Casey, R.
Eadson, W.T.M. (2011). Spatial practices of governing carbon. (Doctoral thesis). Supervised by Wells, P., & Gore, T.
Elton, C.J. (2011). The re-design of rural governance : New institutions for old? (Doctoral thesis). Supervised by Wells, P., & Gore, T.
Beatty, C., Fothergill, S., & Gore, A. (2019). State of the Coalfields 2019 - Dataset.. http://doi.org/10.7190/cresr.2019.6287466777
Tony is currently part of the supervisory teams for two doctoral research students. The students and their topics are as follows
- Larissa Povey: Diverting Women From Prison: The Gendered Nature of Conditionality, Punishment and Control
- Chris Devany: 'Hidden NEETs'; Understanding marginalisation through relational class
Previously he has been Director of Studies or a supervisory team member for 8 successful PhD candidates.
Completed Post graduate supervision
- Will Eadson: Spatial Practices of Governing Carbon: Re-imagining, re-calculating and re-connecting the English regions as carbon spaces
- Gordon Parker: Learning to Work: The Intermediate Labour Market Approach to Social Exclusion
- Chris Elton: Re-designing Rural Governance: New Institutions for Old?
- Sioned Pearce: Constitutional Change and Community Development: Voluntary and community structures and relationships under Welsh devolution.