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Dr Tim Spencer MSci (Hons), PhD, AMInstP

Research Fellow


Tim joined MERI as a researcher to work in the Materials and Fluid Flow Modelling Group on a number of research and consulting based projects. Previously he had spent a year working with high power lasers at the Central Laser Facility in Oxford and had obtained a PhD (2005) and MSci (2002) in engineering physics from Sheffield Hallam University where he also won the Jeremy Laskowski award and Mössbauer award.


His research involves the application of theory and simulation techniques for the predictive modelling of real life systems that involve fluids. In particular the research focuses on liquid crystals, liquid crystal devices, multistable liquid crystal displays, hydrodynamic flows, multi-component flows, colloidal rheology, micro-fluidics, porous media, biological flows and carrier fluids.

These systems/applications can often be represented well by coupled partial differential equations acting on varying length and time scales. To solve these equations he has expertise in the lattice Boltzmann method, in finite differencing methods, integrating methods and high performance computing methods.


  • Developing new lattice Boltzmann methods for Q tensor nemato-dynamics. (Research and consultancy for Seiko Epson Corporation)
  • Modelling and experimental predictions for the Zenithal bistable display. (Research and consultancy ZBD Displays Ltd.)
  • Liquid crystal alignment on patterned surfaces. (Research)
  • Simulations of a novel micro fluidic device for the high speed formation of monodisperse drops. (Consultancy Kodak)
  • Multi component lattice Boltzmann methods. (Research)
  • Microfluidic devices and novel geometries. (Research)
  • Efficient numerical methods for the explicit simulation of particle laden flows with comparison to non-Newtonian theory. (Research)
  • Hemodynamic flows near arteriole walls (Research with CNR Rome)
  • Predicting the dynamic cell seeding distribution in scaffolds and bioreactor flows applied to bone tissue engineering. (Research in collaboration with University of Manchester)


Journal articles

Oriaku, C.I., Spencer, T.J., & Pereira, M. (2017). Anisotropic Medium Approach for the Optical Nonlinearities of Dilute Nitride Superlattices. .

Halliday, I., Lishchuk, S., Spencer, T., Burgin, K., & Schenkel, T. (2017). Interfacial Micro-currents in Continuum-ScaleMulti-Component Lattice Boltzmann Equation Hydrodynamics. Computer Physics Communications, 219, 286-296.

Oriaku, C.I., Spencer, T., Yang, X., Zubelli, J.P., & Pereira, M. (2017). Analytical expressions for the luminescence of dilute quaternary InAs(N,Sb) semiconductors. Journal of Nanophotonics, 11 (2), 026005.

Hsiao, S.T., Spencer, T., Boldock, L., Prosseda, S.D., Xanthis, I., Tovar-Lopez, F.J., ... Evans, P.C. (2016). Endothelial repair in stented arteries is accelerated by inhibition of Rho-associated protein kinase. Cardiovascular Research, 112 (3), 689-701.

Halliday, I., Lishchuk, S., Pontrelli, G., & Evans, P.C. (2016). Local membrane length conservation in two-dimensional vesicle simulation using multi-component lattice BoltzmannEquation Method. Physical Review Letters, 94 (2).

Luong, L., Duckles, H., Schenkel, T., Mahmoud, M., Tremoleda, J.L., Wylezinska-Arridge, M., ... Evans, P.C. (2016). Heart rate reduction with ivabradine promotes shear stress-dependent anti-inflammatory mechanisms in arteries. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 116 (1), 181-190.

Pontrelli, G., Halliday, I., Spencer, T.J., König, C.S., & Collins, M.W. (2015). Modelling the glycocalyx–endothelium–erythrocyte interaction in the microcirculation: a computational study. Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering, 18 (4), 351-361.

Luong, L., Duckles, H., Schenkel, T., Arnold, N., Gsell, W., Lungu, A., ... Evans, P. (2014). Abstract 258: A Pharmacological Approach to Promote Shear Stress-Dependent Anti-inflammatory Mechanisms in Arteries. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 34 (Suppl), A258.

Spencer, T.J., & Halliday, I. (2013). Multicomponent lattice Boltzmann equation method with a discontinuous hydrodynamic interface. Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics, 88 (6).

Pontrelli, G., Halliday, I., Melchionna, S., Spencer, T., & Succi, S. (2013). Lattice Boltzmann method as a computational framework for multiscale haemodynamics. Mathematical and Computer Modelling of Dynamical Systems, 20 (5), 470-490.

Halliday, I., Lishchuk, S., Spencer, T.J., Pontrelli, G., & Care, C.M. (2013). Multiple-component lattice Boltzmann equation for fluid-filled vesicles in flow. Physical review. E, Statistical, nonlinear, and soft matter physics, 87 (2), 023307.

Spencer, T., Halliday, I., Care, C., Cartmell, S., & Hidalgo-Bastida, A. (2012). In silico multi-scale model of transport and dynamic seeding in a bone tissue engineering perfusion bioreactor. Biotechnology Bioengineering, 110 (4), 1221-1230.

Melchionna, S., Pontrelli, G., Bernaschi, M., Bisson, M., Halliday, I., Spencer, T., & Succi, S. (2012). The Lattice Boltzmann method as a general framework for blood flow modelling and simulations. .

Halliday, I., Atherton, M., Care, C., Collins, M.W., Evans, D., Evans, P.C., ... Spencer, T.J. (2011). Multi-scale interaction of particulate flow and the artery wall. Medical Engineering and Physics, 33 (7), 840-848.

Hollis, A.P., Spencer, T., Halliday, I., & Care, C. (2011). Dynamic wetting boundary condition for continuum hydrodynamics with multi-component lattice Boltzmann equation simulation method. IMA Journal of Applied Mathematics, 76 (5), 726-742.

Pontrelli, G., Koenig, C., Halliday, I., Spencer, T., Collins, M., Long, Q., & Succi, S. (2011). Modelling wall shear stress in small arteries using Lattice Boltzmann method: influence of the endothelial wall profile. Medical Engineering and Physics, 33 (7), 832-839.

Spencer, T.J., Care, C.M., Amos, R.M., & Jones, J.C. (2010). Zenithal bistable device: comparison of modeling and experiment. Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics, 82 (2).

Spencer, T., Halliday, I., & Care, C. (2010). Lattice Boltzmann equation method for multiple immiscible continuum fluids. Physical Review E, 82 (066701), 1-22.

Halliday, I., Spencer, T.J., & Care, C.M. (2009). Validation of multicomponent lattice Boltzmann equation simulations using theoretical calculations of immiscible drop shape. Physical review E. Statistical, nonlinear and soft matter physics, 79 (1).

Spencer, T.J., & Care, C.M. (2006). Lattice boltzmann scheme for modeling liquid crystal dynamics: Zenithal bistable device in the presence of defect motion. Physical review E, 74 (6), 061708.

Dupin, M.M., Spencer, T.J., Halliday, I., & Care, C.M. (2004). A many-component lattice Boltzmann equation simulation for transport of deformable particles. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. A, Mathematical physical and engineering sciences, 362.

Conference papers

Schenkel, T., Spencer, T., & Halliday, I. (2019). Non Newtonian Particle Transport Model For Haemorheology. In Thurner, P., Pahr, D., & Hellmich, C. (Eds.) European Society of Biomechanics ESBiomech Conference, Vienna, Austria, 7 July 2019 - 10 July 2019 (pp. 60). Congress of the European Society of Biomechanics

Spencer, T., Halliday, I., & Care, C. (2011). A local lattice Boltzmann method formultiple immiscible fluids and densesuspensions of drops. Philosophical transactions. Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences, 369 (1944), 2255-2263.

Cartmell, S.H., Spencer, T.J., Hildalgo-Bastida, L.A., Halliday, I., & Care, C.M. (2011). Modelling of a perfusion bioreactor using lattice Boltzman technique. European Cells and Materials, 22 (SUPPL.2), 38.

Hidalgo-Bastida, L.A., Spencer, T.J., Lowe, T., Withers, P., Halliday, I., Care, C., & Cartmell, S.H. (2011). Lattice-Boltzmann mathematical model of cell attachment in a perfusion bioreactor: Validation using microCT. European Cells and Materials, 22 (SUPPL.3), 46.

Hidalgo-Bastida, L.A., Spencer, T.J., Halliday, I., Care, C., & Cartmell, S.H. (2009). Perfusion bioreactor for bone tissue engineering: Experimental parameters for a Lattice-Boltzmann mathematical model. European Cells and Materials, 18 (SUPPL. 2), 66.

Book chapters

Montessori, A., Halliday, I., Lauricella, M., Lishchuk, S.V., Pontrelli, G., Spencer, T.J., & Succi, S. (2017). Multicomponent lattice Boltzmann models for biological applications. In Cerrolaza, M., Shefelbine, S., & Garzón-Alvarado, D. (Eds.) Numerical Methods and Advanced Simulation in Biomechanics and Biological Processes. (pp. 357-370). Elsevier:

Theses / Dissertations

Burgin, K. (2018). Development of explicit and constitutive lattice-Boltzmannmodels for food product rheology. (Doctoral thesis). Supervised by Spencer, T., Halliday, I., & Schenkel, T.


Luong, L., Duckles, H., Schenkel, T., Lopez-Tremoleda, J., Wylezinska-Arridge, M., Arnold, M., ... Evans, P.C. (2014). A pharmacological approach to promote shear stress-dependent anti-inflammatory mechanisms in arteries. Presented at: The 9th international symposium on Biomechanics in Vascular Biology and Cardiovascular Disease, Montreal, Canada

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