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  4. Dr Tom Maden-Wilkinson

Dr Tom Maden-Wilkinson PhD, FHEA

Senior Research Fellow


Summary

My area of expertise lies in skeletal muscle physiology, in particular the importance of muscle mass, strength and function, the underpinning physiological mechanisms that control these and how these can be manipulated to benefit human performance and maximise resilience.

My research has 2 strands within this expertise, 1. Application within elite sport and 2. Application with Clinical Musculoskeletal Health. Whilst these 2 contexts appear at opposite ends, the strategies in understanding maximising performance from elite settings has comparable characteristics with the performance of activities of daily living as we get older and being resilient to acute changes such as falls, surgery or COVID-19.

About

My research focus is on skeletal muscle physiology, in particular the importance of muscle mass, strength and function, the underpinning physiological mechanisms that control these and how these can be manipulated to benefit human performance and maximise resilience.

My research has 2 strands within this expertise,

  • 1. Application with Clinical Musculoskeletal Health and
  • 2. Application within elite sport

Musculoskeletal Health

My main research interest lies in the promotion and implementation of resistance training in older adults and people with long term conditions.

I co-created the Strength4Life programme alongside colleagues in the department and Sheffield Teaching Hospitals to deliver community strength training classes aimed at over 55’s. Strength4Life was formed based there is inadequate provision for strength training aimed at this group and poor knowledge from associated practitioners. The programme embeds student work placements, projects and internships , alongside an active social media presence; podcast and educational series.

Application of knowledge from Sports Science and Elite Sport and application into clinical populations including Stroke, Arthritis, Peripheral Vascular Disease, Cancer and Long COVID. This include using strategies in understanding maximising performance from elite settings has comparable characteristics with the performance of activities of daily living as we get older and being resilient to acute changes.This work has led to working alongside the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy on their strength training campaigns and a recent role as part of the national falls prevention group.

Elite Sport

My work within elite sport has been understanding the role of muscle mass and strength, muscle mass distribution and muscle architecture for performance and injury risk. This has typically involved imaging techniques such as MRI, pQCT, DXA and Ultrasound alongside strength measurements.

My work in elite sport has led to publications alongside colleagues from English Institute of Sport, Lawn Tennis Association, British Cycling, High Performance Centre of Japan Cycling, Royal Dutch Cycling Federation and Sheffield United FC.

Specialist areas of interest

Musculoskeletal Physiology
Explosive Strength Performance
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Ultrasound
Ageing

Teaching

Academy of Sport and Physical Activity

Health And Wellbeing

Subject area

- Physical Activity
- Sport and Exercise Science

Courses

- MSc Strength and Conditioning
- MSc Applied Sport and Exercise Science
- BSc Sport and Exercise Science
- BSc Physical Activity and Health

Modules

- Exercise and Health
- Physiology and Nutrition for Sport and Exercise Performance
- Applied Physiology for Sports Performance
- Research Project
- Science of Strength and Conditioning

Publications

Journal articles

Sconce, E., Heller, B., Maden-Wilkinson, T., & Hamilton, N. (2021). Agreement between methods and terminology used to assess the kinematics of the Nordic hamstring exercise. Journal of Sports Sciences. http://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2021.1968127

Skarabot, J., Balshaw, T., Maeo, S., Massey, G., Bahia-Lanza, M., Maden-Wilkinson, T., & Folland, J. (2021). Neural adaptations to long-term resistance training: evidence for the confounding effect of muscle size on the interpretation of surface electromyography. Journal of Applied Physiology. http://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00094.2021

Darabseh, M., Maden-Wilkinson, T., Welbourne, G., Wust, R., Ahmed, N., Aushah, H., ... Degens, H. (2021). Fourteen days of smoking cessation improves muscle fatigue resistance and reverses markers of systemic inflammation. Scientific Reports, 11. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-91510-x

Bell, L., Ruddock, A., Maden-Wilkinson, T., Hembrough, D., & Rogerson, D. (2021). “Is It Overtraining or Just Work Ethic?”: Coaches’ Perceptions of Overtraining in High-Performance Strength Sports. Sports, 9 (6), 85. http://doi.org/10.3390/sports9060085

Maden-Wilkinson, T., Balshaw, T., Massey, G., & Folland, J. (2021). Muscle architecture and morphology as determinants of explosive strength. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 121, 1099-1110. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-020-04585-1

Balshaw, T.G., Maden-Wilkinson, T., Massey, G.J., & Folland, J.P. (2021). The Human Muscle Size and Strength Relationship. Effects of Architecture, Muscle Force and Measurement Location. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. http://doi.org/10.1249/mss.0000000000002691

Kordi, M., Parker-Simpson, L., Thomas, K., Goodall, S., Maden-Wilkinson, T., Menzies, C., & Howatson, G. (2021). The relationship between neuromuscular function and the W’ in elite cyclists. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. http://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2020-0861

Sconce, E., Heller, B., Maden-Wilkinson, T., & Hamilton, N. (2021). Development of a novel Nordic hamstring exercise device to measure and modify the knee flexors’ torque-length relationship. Frontiers in Sport and Active Living, 3, 629606. http://doi.org/10.3389/fspor.2021.629606

Faghy, M.A., Arena, R., Stoner, L., Haraf, R.H., Josephson, R., Hills, A.P., ... Ashton, R.E.M. (2021). The need for exercise sciences and an integrated response to COVID-19: A position statement from the international HL-PIVOT network. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcad.2021.01.004

Faghy, M.A., Brown, P.I., Davis, N.M., Mayes, J.P., & Maden-Wilkinson, T. (2021). A flow resistive inspiratory muscle training mask worn during high-intensity interval training does not improve 5 km running time-trial performance. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 121 (1), 183-191. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-020-04505-3

Faghy, M.A., Ashton, R.E., Maden-Wilkinson, T., Copeland, R., Bewick, T., Smith, A., & Loosemore, M. (2020). Integrated sports and respiratory medicine in the aftermath of COVID-19. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 8 (9), 852. http://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30307-6

Bell, L., Ruddock, A., Maden-Wilkinson, T., & Rogerson, D. (2020). Overreaching and Overtraining in Strength Sports and Resistance Training: A Scoping Review. Journal of Sports Sciences. http://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2020.1763077

Maden-Wilkinson, T.M., Balshaw, T.G., Massey, G., & Folland, J.P. (2019). What makes long-term resistance-trained individuals so strong? A comparison of skeletal muscle morphology, architecture, and joint mechanics. Journal of Applied Physiology. http://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00224.2019

Kordi, M., Folland, J., Goodall, S., Haralabidis, N., Maden-Wilkinson, T., Patel, T.S., ... Howatson, G. (2019). Mechanical and morphological determinants of peak power output in elite cyclists. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. http://doi.org/10.1111/sms.13570

Behan, F.P., Moody, R., Patel, T.S., Lattimore, E., Maden-Wilkinson, T., & Balshaw, T.G. (2019). Biceps femoris long head muscle fascicle length does not differ between sexes. Journal of Sports Sciences, 37 (21), 2452-2458. http://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2019.1641016

Hattersley, C., Hembrough, D., Khan, K., Picken, A., Rumbold, J., & Maden-Wilkinson, T. (2019). Managing the transition into retirement for elite athletes. Professional strength & conditioning, (53), 11-16. https://www.uksca.org.uk/uksca-iq/article/journal-back-issues/1886/professional-strength-conditioning-issue-53-june-2019

Balshaw, T.G., Massey, G.J., Maden-Wilkinson, T., Lanza, M.B., & Folland, J.P. (2018). Neural adaptations after 4 years vs. 12 weeks of resistance training vs. untrained. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 29 (3), 348-359. http://doi.org/10.1111/sms.13331

McPhee, J.S., Cameron, J., Maden-Wilkinson, T., Piasecki, M., Yap, M.H., Jones, D.A., & Degens, H. (2018). The contributions of fibre atrophy, fibre loss, in situ specific force and voluntary activation to weakness in sarcopenia. The Journals of Gerontology: Series A, 73 (10), 1287-1294. http://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/gly040

Massey, G., Balshaw, T., Maden-Wilkinson, T., Tillin, N., & Folland, J. (2018). Tendinous tissue adaptation to explosive-vs. sustained-contraction strength training. Frontiers in Physiology, 9 (SEP). http://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.01170

Massey, G.J., Balshaw, T.G., Maden-Wilkinson, T., & Folland, J.P. (2018). Tendinous tissue properties after short and long-term functional overload: Differences between controls, 12 weeks and 4 years of resistance training. Acta Physiologica, 222 (4), e13019. http://doi.org/10.1111/apha.13019

Behan, F.P., Maden-Wilkinson, T., Pain, M.T.G., & Folland, J. (2018). Sex differences in muscle morphology of the knee flexors and knee extensors. PLoS ONE, 13 (1), e0190903. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0190903

Coulson, J., Bagley, L., Barnouin, Y., Bradburn, S., Butler-Browne, G., Gapeyeva, H., ... McPhee, J.S. (2017). Circulating levels of Dickkopf-1, Osteoprotegerin and sclerostin are higher in old compared with young men and women and positively associated with whole-body bone mineral density in older adults. Osteoporosis International, 28 (9), 2683-2689. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-017-4104-2

Balshaw, T.G., Massey, G.J., Maden-Wilkinson, T., & Folland, J.P. (2017). Muscle size and strength : debunking the “completely separate phenomena” suggestion. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 117 (6), 1275-1276. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-017-3616-y

Balshaw, T.G., Fry, A., Maden-Wilkinson, T., Kong, P.W., & Folland, J.P. (2017). Reliability of quadriceps surface electromyography measurements is improved by two vs. single site recordings. European journal of applied physiology, 117 (6), 1085-1094. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-017-3595-z

Massey, G.J., Balshaw, T.G., Maden-Wilkinson, T., Tillin, N.A., & Folland, J.P. (2017). The influence of patellar tendon and muscle-tendon unit stiffness on quadriceps explosive strength in man. Experimental Physiology, 102 (4), 448-461. http://doi.org/10.1113/EP086190

Balshaw, T.G., Massey, G.J., Maden-Wilkinson, T., Morales-Artacho, A.J., McKeown, A., Appleby, C.L., & Folland, J.P. (2017). Changes in agonist neural drive, hypertrophy and pre-training strength all contribute to the individual strength gains after resistance training. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 117 (4), 631-640. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-017-3560-x

Balshaw, T.G., Massey, G.J., Maden-Wilkinson, T., Tillin, N.A., & Folland, J.P. (2016). Training-specific functional, neural, and hypertrophic adaptations to explosive- vs. sustained-contraction strength training. Journal of Applied Physiology, 120 (11), 1364-1373. http://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00091.2016

Ireland, A., Degens, H., Ganse, B., Maden-Wilkinson, T., Wilks, D.C., & Rittweger, J. (2015). Greater tibial bone strength in male tennis players than controls in the absence of greater muscle output. Journal of Orthopaedic Translation, 3 (3), 142-151. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jot.2015.04.001

Maden-Wilkinson, T., McPhee, J.S., Jones, D.A., & Degens, H. (2015). Age-related loss of muscle mass, strength, and power and their association with mobility in recreationally-active older adults in the United Kingdom. Journal of aging and physical activity, 23 (3), 352-360. http://doi.org/10.1123/japa.2013-0219

Mcphee, J.S., Maden-Wilkinson, T., Narici, M.V., Jones, D.A., & Degens, H. (2014). Knee extensor fatigue resistance of young and older men and women performing sustained and brief intermittent isometric contractions. Muscle & Nerve, 50 (3), 393-400. http://doi.org/10.1002/mus.24174

Sillanpää, E., Stenroth, L., Bijlsma, A.Y., Rantanen, T., McPhee, J.S., Maden-Wilkinson, T., ... Sipilä, S. (2014). Associations between muscle strength, spirometric pulmonary function and mobility in healthy older adults. Age, 36 (4), 9667. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11357-014-9667-7

Ireland, A., Maden-Wilkinson, T., Ganse, B., Degens, H., & Rittweger, J. (2014). Effects of age and starting age upon side asymmetry in the arms of veteran tennis players: a cross-sectional study. Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA, 25 (4), 1389-1400. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-014-2617-5

Maden-Wilkinson, T., McPhee, J.S., Rittweger, J., Jones, D.A., & Degens, H. (2014). Thigh muscle volume in relation to age, sex and femur volume. Age, 36 (1), 383-393. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11357-013-9571-6

Maden-Wilkinson, T., Degens, H., Jones, D.A., & Mcphee, J.S. (2013). Comparison of MRI and DXA to measure muscle size and age-related atrophy in thigh muscles. Journal of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions, 13 (3), 320-328. http://www.ismni.org/jmni/Archive.php?year=2013

Maden-Wilkinson, T., Degens, H., Jones, D.A., & McPhee, J.S. (2013). Comparison of MRI and DXA to measure muscle size and age-related atrophy in thigh muscles. Journal of musculoskeletal & neuronal interactions, 13 (3), 320-8. http://www.ismni.org/jmni/Archive.php?year=2013

Ireland, A., Maden-Wilkinson, T., McPhee, J., Cooke, K., Narici, M., Degens, H., & Rittweger, J. (2013). Upper limb muscle-bone asymmetries and bone adaptation in elite youth tennis players. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 45 (9), 1749-58. http://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e31828f882f.

Degens, H., Maden-Wilkinson, T., Ireland, A., Korhonen, M.T., Suominen, H., Heinonen, A., ... Rittweger, J. (2013). Relationship between ventilatory function and age in master athletes and a sedentary reference population. Age, 35 (3), 1007-1015. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11357-012-9409-7

McPhee, J.S., Hogrel, J.-.Y., Maier, A.B., Seppet, E., Seynnes, O.R., Sipilä, S., ... Jones, D.A. (2013). Physiological and functional evaluation of healthy young and older men and women: design of the European MyoAge study. Biogerontology, 14 (3), 325-37. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10522-013-9434-7

Ireland, A., Maden-Wilkinson, T., McPhee, J., Cooke, K., Narici, M., Degens, H., & Rittweger, J. (n.d.). Upper limb muscle-bone asymmetries and bone adaptation in elite youth tennis players. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 45 (9), 1749-1758. http://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e31828f882f

Conference papers

Mc Dermott, E.J., Balshaw, T.G., Brooke-Wavell, K., Maden-Wilkinson, T., & Folland, J.P. (2020). Kinetics And Kinematics Of Isoinertial Ballistic Contractions In Older Adults [abstract only]. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 52 (7S), 946. http://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000685844.31565.3e

McDermott, E., Balshaw, T., Brooke-Wavell, K., Maden-Wilkinson, T., & Folland, J. (2019). Neuromechanics of different resistance training contractions in older adults. In British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences.

Howatson, G., Kordi, M., Maden-Wilkinson, T., & Folland, J. (2019). Physiological determinants of peak power output in elite cyclists. In American College of Sports Medicine.

Behan, F., Maden-Wilkinson, T.M., Pain, M.T.G., & Folland, J.P. (2016). Sex Differences In Hamstrings To Quadriceps Muscle Volume Ratio [abstract only]. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 48 (5), 388. http://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000486172.10588.a6

Balshaw, T.G., Massey, G.J., Maden-Wilkinson, T.M., Tillin, N.A., & Folland, J.P. (2016). Twelve Weeks Of Explosive Strength Training Increases Both Maximal And Explosive Voluntary Torque Production. MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE, 48 (5), 452. http://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000486358.39688.0e

Hattersley, C., Khan, K., Maden-Wilkinson, T., & Hembrough, D. Strength for Life. In Scottish Physical Activity Conference 2020.

Maden-Wilkinson, T., Balshaw, T., Massey, G., & Folland, J.P. What makes strong, highly trained individuals so strong? A comparison of skeletal muscle morphology, architecture and joint mechanics between untrained and long term strength trained individuals. In European Congress in Sports Science.

Balshaw, T., Maden-Wilkinson, T., Massey, G., & Folland, J. Re-examining the Strength-Size Relationship of Skeletal Muscle. European Congress of Sports Science. In European Congress in Sports Science.

Maden-Wilkinson, T., Balshaw, T., Massey, G., & Folland, J. What makes strong, highly trained individuals so strong? A comparison of skeletal muscle morphology, architecture and joint mechanics between untrained and long-term strength trained individuals. In BASES.

Balshaw, T.G., Maden-Wilkinson, T., Kong, P.W., Massey, G., & Folland, J.P. Biceps femoris long head proximal aponeurosis and muscle anatomy in athletes susceptible to hamstrings strain injury: a retrospective injury study. In Sport Kongres.

Maden-Wilkinson, T., Balshaw, T.G., & Folland, J.P. Morphological determinants of Explosive Strength. In ECSS.

Massey, G., Maden-Wilkinson, T., & Folland, J.P. Tendon size and stiffness:influence of short-term and chronic strength training? In ECSS.

Behan, F., Maden-Wilkinson, T., Pain, M., & Folland, J. Sex differences in Hamstrings to Quadriceps muscle volume ratio. In ACSM.

Balshaw, T.G., Maden-Wilkinson, T., Massey, G., & Folland, J.P. 12-Weeks of explosive strength training increases both maximal and explosive voluntary torque production. In ACSM.

Maden-Wilkinson, T., Moody, R., Behan, F., Folland, J., & Balshaw, T.G. Sex differences in human eccentric hamstring strength and Biceps Femoris long head architecture. In Biomedical Basis for Elite Performance.

Maden-Wilkinson, T., & Bramley, L. Variance of microcycle and mesocycle training intensity and injury risk in elite football: Comparison between Senior and U18 squads. In Stats Sports Conference.

Maden-Wilkinson, T., Balshaw, T.G., & Folland, J.P. Neural and morphological contributions to the individual changes in explosive and maximal strength following a 12-week training intervention period. In Biomedical Basis of Elite Performance.

Massey, G., Maden-Wilkinson, T., Tillin, N., Balshaw, T.G., & Folland, J.P. Do muscle-tendon unit and patellar tendon stiffness influence explosive strength in man? In Biomedical Basis for Elite Performance.

Maden-Wilkinson, T., Massey, G., Balshaw, T., & Folland, J.P. Differential tendinous tissue adaptations after conventional vs explosive strength training. In ECSS.

McPhee, J., Maden-Wilkinson, T., Narici, M., & Degens, H. Skeletal muscle fatigue: effects of age, sex and pattern of muscle activation. In The Biomedical Basis of Elite Performance (London).

Maden-Wilkinson, T., McPhee, J.S., Jones, D.A., Rittweger, J., & Degens, H. Muscle:bone ratio as an intra-individual indicator of sarcopaenia. In Physiological Society.

McPhee, J.S., Maden-Wilkinson, T., & Degens, H. Loss of skeletal muscle power in older men is due to loss of muscle mass, specific force and speed of contraction. In Physiological Society.

McPhee, J.S., Maden-Wilkinson, T., & Degens, H. Use of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging techniques to determine skeletal muscle size in humans. In Physiological Society.

McPhee, J.S., Maden-Wilkinson, T., & Degens, H. Superior skeletal muscle fatigue resistance in old compared with young adult humans during sustained but not during intermittent contractions. In Physiological Society.

McPhee, J., Maden-Wilkinson, T., Campbell, E.-.L., & Degens, H. Skeletal muscle size, strength and ‘quality’ in untrained young and elderly men, and in elderly athletes. In ECSS.

Reports

Hattersley, C., Hembrough, D., Khan, K., Maden-Wilkinson, T., & Rumbold, J. (2020). Managing the transition into retirement for elite athletes. UKSCA Professional Journal.

Hattersley, C., Khan, K., Hembrough, D., & Maden-Wilkinson, T. (2020). Clinical narrative: The role of muscular strength in recovery from hip fracture. Chartered Society of Physiotherapy.

Hattersley, C., Hembrough, D., Kahn, K., & Maden-Wilkinson, T. (2019). 2. Implementing Digital Learning Methods to Provide Continuing Professional Development in Physiotherapy. Chartered Society of Physiotherapy.

Theses / Dissertations

Maden-Wilkinson, T. (2013). Age Related changes in skeletal muscle mass and function. (Doctoral thesis). Supervised by Degens, H., McPhee, J., & Jones, D.A.

Internet Publications

Maden-Wilkinson, T. (2020). Hamstring Strain injuries: What are they? How can we recover from them and come back bigger, stronger and more resilient?

Other publications

Lowe, A., Bullas, A., Maden-Wilkinson, T., & Hembrough, D. (2020). Active at Home : a guide to staying active during the Coronavirus Outbreak. Public Health England/Move More Sheffield: https://campaignresources.phe.gov.uk/resources/campaigns/50-resource-ordering/resources/5118

Lowe, A., Bullas, A., Maden-Wilkinson, T., & Hembrough, D. (2020). Active at Home : a guide to staying active during the Coronavirus Outbreak. Public Health England/Move More Sheffield: https://campaignresources.phe.gov.uk/resources/campaigns/50-resource-ordering/resources/5118

Other activities

National Falls Prevention Co-Ordination Group.

Postgraduate supervision

On going PhD supervision in areas of muscle physiology, ageing, long term conditions.

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