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Caroline Millman

Caroline Millman

Senior Lecturer


I studied BSc (Hons) Food Technology and subsequently spent 18 years in the food industry, working mainly in technical for retailers, consultancy groups and manufacturers.

In 2008, I decided to utilise my food industry knowledge in a PhD, investigating foodborne illness in the domestic setting. The work programme was an ESRC studentship, awarded as part of “Reducing E. coli O157 Risk in Rural Communities” funded under the UK Research Councils’ Rural Economy and Land Use Programme (RELU).

Following graduation in 2012, I joined the Enigma team as a Research Associate at the University of Manchester working on the ESEI project "Sources, seasonality, transmission and control: Campylobacter and human behaviour in a changing environment".

I am now a senior lecturer at Sheffield Hallam University, taking on the role of Course Leader for the BSc (Hons) Food Industry Technical Professional Degree Apprenticeship course. I continue to pursue research interests in consumer attitudes and behaviours towards food safety.



  • 2012: Doctor of Philosophy, University of Manchester, United Kingdom
  • 1993: BSc (Hons) Food Technology, University of Humberside, United Kingdom

Senior Lecturer


  • Acceptability of Interventions
  • Food Safety Awareness among Different Groups of People
  • Hazard Perception with Special Emphasis on Campylobacter Reduction and Interventions
  • Use of Novel Methods to Elicit Perceptions of Risk


Department of Service Sector Management

Sheffield Business School



My current research and interests include:

  • Attitudes and behaviours towards food safety.
  • Food safety awareness among different groups of people.
  • Hazard perception with special emphasis on Campylobacter reduction and interventions.
  • Acceptability of interventions.
  • Use of novel methods to elicit perceptions of risk e.g. Watch & Click surveys and Best Worst Scaling.


Journal articles

Badjona, A., Bradshaw, R., Millman, C., Howarth, M., & Dubey, B. (2023). Faba Bean Processing: Thermal and Non-Thermal Processing on Chemical, Antinutritional Factors, and Pharmacological Properties. Molecules, 28 (14).

Badjona, A., Bradshaw, R., Millman, C., Howarth, M., & Dubey, B. (2023). Faba Bean Flavor Effects from Processing to Consumer Acceptability. Foods, 12 (11).

Christley, R., Nelson, G., Millman, C., & Westgarth, C. (2021). Assessment of Detection of Potential Dog-Bite Risks in the Home Using a Real-Time Hazard Perception Test. Anthrozoos.

Weston, E.J.E., Millman, C., Setarehnejad, A., Bennett, E.J., & Oruna-Concha, M.J. (2021). Career management for UK food degree students at multiple institutes using an industry-developed professional competencies framework. Journal of Food Science Education.

Millman, C., Rigby, D., & Jones, D.L. (2020). Investigating heterogeneity in food risk perceptions using best-worst scaling. Journal of Risk Research.

Jones, N.R., Millman, C., van der Es, M., Hukelova, M., Forbes, K.J., Glover, C., ... Wren, B. (2017). Novel sampling method for assessing human-pathogen interactions in the natural environment using boot socks and citizen scientists, with application to Campylobacter seasonality. Applied and environmental microbiology, 83 (14).

Jones, A.K., Cross, P., Burton, M., Millman, C., O'Brien, S.J., & Rigby, D. (2017). Estimating the prevalence of food risk increasing behaviours in UK kitchens. PLoS ONE, 12 (6), e0175816.

Millman, C., Christley, R., Rigby, D., Dennis, D., O'Brien, S.J., & Williams, N. (2017). “Catch 22”: biosecurity awareness, interpretation and practice amongst poultry catchers. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 141, 22-32.

Jones, A.K., Rigby, D., Burton, M., Millman, C., Williams, N.J., Jones, T.R., ... Cross, P. (2016). Restaurant cooking trends and increased risk for Campylobacter infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22 (7), 1208-1215.

Millman, C., Rigby, D., Jones, D., & Edwards-Jones, G. (2015). A real-time test of food hazard awareness. British Food Journal, 117 (8), 2112-2128.

Millman, C., Rigby, D., Edward-Jones, G., Lighton, L., & Jones, D. (2014). Perceptions, behaviours and kitchen hygiene of people who have and have not suffered campylobacteriosis: A case control study. Food Control, 41, 82-90.

Conference papers

Plumbe, D., Forrester, L., Millman, C., & Nichols, A. (2022). On demand but not on display. A comparative analysis of nutrition labelling in online grocery retailers. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 81 (OCE5).


Pinnington, S., Heurlier, K., Morris, C., & Millman, C. (2019). E. coli with a side of fries? The real safety risk of the increasing trend for pink burgers in the U.K. Presented at: 2nd Food Chemistry conference. Shaping the future of food quality, safety, nutrition and health, Seville, Spain, 2019

Other activities

2008: Awarded Full studentship with ESRC

2012: Established clickLearner and developed software to use in research for hazard perception.

2014: Part of a team that gained an award to present at the BBSRC bioscience festival in London 2014.

2015: British Council funded workshop in South Africa investigating the benefits of collaborating towards a “one Health” approach, with epidemiologists, vets and social scientists.

2015: Award of an ESRC Impact Accelerator Grant (£20,000) to continue highly successful research in schools as part of the Enigma project. This was awarded with recognition of partnerships from the Chilled Food Association and the Food Teachers Centre.

2015: Created Food Bug Club to collect research data from schools and to provide a valuable resource for secondary school teachers

2016: 2 year award from All Saints Educational Trust to continue and develop Food Bug Club for schools.

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