Dr Philip Gardiner

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  4. Dr Philip Gardiner

Dr Philip HE Gardiner BSc, MSc, PhD, CChem, FRSC

Senior Lecturer in Analytical Chemistry


I am a Senior Lecturer in Analytical Science here at Sheffield Hallam University. I joined SHU after post- doctoral positions in Germany, and a Lectureship in Chemistry at the University of Ghana, West Africa. My research interests are in trace element speciation, bioremediation and the development of gold nanoparticle-based biosensors.


Over the last twenty-five years, I have been involved in the development and teaching of a variety of chemical and environmental courses at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. I have lectured on courses in analytical chemistry, environmental chemistry and science, and physical chemistry to all years of the undergraduate program. Over the years, I have been involved with or led the development of courses in applied chemistry, environmental chemistry and science. At post graduate level, I have taught courses in atomic spectrometry, quality control and quality assurance, sample preparation, and advanced analytical techniques. I have led in the development and running of two successful MSc courses at Hallam in pharmaceutical analysis and analytical chemistry. The latter is accredited by the Royal Society of Chemistry.


I currently teach Analytical Chemistry at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels.


I have over thirty years of sustained research experience. I have successfully supervised sixteen PhD and three MPhil students.

ORCID ID: 0000-0002-2687-0106

Research interests

Trace element metabolism in human health and disease

Development of analytical methods for the study of the chemical speciation of essential and toxic trace elements in environmental and biological samples.

Gold nanoparticles-based biosensors

Work on the development of biosensors based on gold nanoparticles as chromogenic platforms in the measurement of enzyme activity. My current research is in the use of peptide-functionalized gold nanoparticles for the measurement of the activity of the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase, which is a target for the treatment and control of type 2 diabetes. Results from these investigations will be extended to the development of point-of-care biosensors that can be deployed in low resource settings.

Studies and characterization of microbial transformation of pollutants

The development of bioremediation laboratory-based approaches for the clean-up of metal and metalloid contaminated soils and solutions. This work could be extended to scale-up studies in order to assess their suitability in the remediation of large scale environmental pollution.

Work in collaboration with Professor Tom Smith.

Bioremediation and bio-precipitation of heavy metals

This investigation is in collaboration with Professor AA Kamnev, Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, Saratov, Russia.


Journal articles

Ruiz-Fresneda, M.A., Fernández-Cantos, M.V., Gómez-Bolívar, J., Eswayah, A.S., Gardiner, P.H.E., Pinel-Cabello, M., ... Merroun, M.L. (2023). Combined bioreduction and volatilization of SeVI by Stenotrophomonas bentonitica: Formation of trigonal selenium nanorods and methylated species. The Science of the total environment, 858 (Pt 2). http://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.160030

Marín, J., Colina, M., Ledo, H., & Gardiner, P.H.E. (2022). Ecological risk by potentially toxic elements in surface sediments of the Lake Maracaibo (Venezuela). Environmental Engineering Research, 27 (4), 210232-0. http://doi.org/10.4491/eer.2021.232

Enbaia, S., Eswayah, A., Hondow, N., Gardiner, P., & Smith, T. (2020). Detoxification, active uptake, and intracellular accumulation of chromium species by a methane-oxidizing bacterium. Applied and environmental microbiology. http://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00947-20

Sakellari, G.I., Hondow, N., & Gardiner, P.H.E. (2020). Factors Influencing the Surface Functionalization of Citrate Stabilized Gold Nanoparticles with Cysteamine, 3-Mercaptopropionic Acid or l -Selenocystine for Sensor Applications. Chemosensors, 8 (3), e80. http://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors8030080

Ojeda, J.J., Merroun, M.L., Tugarova, A.V., Lampis, S., Kamnev, A.A., & Gardiner, P.H.E. (2020). Developments in the study and applications of bacterial transformations of selenium species. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology. http://doi.org/10.1080/07388551.2020.1811199

Ruiz-Fresneda, M.A., Eswayah, A.S., Romero-González, M., Gardiner, P.H.E., Solari, P.L., & Merroun, M.L. (2020). Chemical and structural characterization of SeIV biotransformations by Stenotrophomonas bentonitica into Se0 nanostructures and volatiles Se species. Environmental Science: Nano, 7, 2140-2155. http://doi.org/10.1039/d0en00507j

Eswayah, A.S., Hondow, N., Scheinost, A.C., Merroun, M., Romero-González, M., Smith, T.J., & Gardiner, P.H.E. (2019). Methyl Selenol as Precursor in Selenite Reduction to Se/S Species by Methane-oxidizing Bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol. http://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01379-19

Aldewachi, H., Woodroofe, N., & Gardiner, P. (2018). Study of the stability of functionalized gold nanoparticles for the colorimetric detection of dipeptidyl peptidase IV. Applied Sciences, 8 (12), 2589. http://doi.org/10.3390/app8122589

Aldewachi, H., Chalati, T., Woodroofe, N., Bricklebank, N., Sharack, B., & Gardiner, P. (2018). Gold nanoparticle-based colorimetric biosensors. Nanoscale, 10 (1), 18-33. http://doi.org/10.1039/c7nr06367a

Khamoni, J.A., Hamshaw, T., & Gardiner, P. (2017). Impact of ingredients on the elemental content of baby foods. Food Chemistry, 231, 309-315. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.03.143

Aldewachi, H., Woodroofe, N., Turega, S., & Gardiner, P. (2017). Optimization of gold nanoparticle-based real-time colorimetric assay of dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity. Talanta, 169, 13-19. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2017.03.039

Eswayah, A., Smith, T., Scheinost, A., Hondow, N., & Gardiner, P. (2017). Microbial transformations of selenite by methane-oxidizing bacteria. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 101 (17), 6713-6724. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-017-8380-8

Leese, E., Clench, M., Morton, J., Gardiner, P., & Carolan, V. (2017). The investigation of unexpected arsenic compounds observed in routine biological monitoring urinary speciation analysis. Toxics, 5 (2), 12. http://doi.org/10.3390/toxics5020012

Leese, E., Morton, J., Gardiner, P., & Carolan, V. (2016). The simultaneous detection of trivalent & hexavalent chromium in exhaled breath condensate: A feasibility study comparing workers and controls. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 220 (2), 415-423. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2016.12.003

Eswayah, A., Smith, T., & Gardiner, P. (2016). Microbial transformations of selenium species of relevance to bioremediation. Applied and environmental microbiology, 82 (16), 4848-4859. http://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00877-16

Leese, E., Morton, J., Gardiner, P., & Carolan, V. (2016). Development of a method for the simultaneous detection of Cr(iii) and Cr(vi) in exhaled breath condensate samples using μLC-ICP-MS. Journal of analytical atomic spectrometry, 31 (4), 924-933. http://doi.org/10.1039/c5ja00436e

Leese, E., Morton, J., Tan, E., Gardiner, P.H.E., & Carolan, V.A. (2014). µLC-ICP-MS determinations of unexposed UK urinary arsenic speciation reference values. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 38 (1), 24-30. http://doi.org/10.1093/jat/bkt090

Ju-Nam, Y., Chen, Y.-.S., Ojeda, J.J., Allen, D.W., Cross, N.A., Gardiner, P.H.E., & Bricklebank, N. (2012). Water-soluble gold nanoparticles stabilized with cationic phosphonium thiolate ligands. RSC Advances, 2 (27), 10345-10351. http://doi.org/10.1039/C2RA21421K

Kamnev, A.A., Tugarova, A.V., Tarantilis, P.A., Gardiner, P.H.E., & Polissiou, M.G. (2012). Comparing poly-3-hydroxybutyrate accumulation in Azospirillum brasilense strains Sp7 and Sp245: The effects of copper(II). Applied Soil Ecology, 61. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2011.10.020

Colina, M.N., Gardiner, P.H.E., Rivas, Z., & Troncone, F. (2011). Mercury speciation in Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela, using reversed phase HPLC and ICP-MS. Atomic Spectroscopy, 32 (1), 1-11.

Al Hasin, A., Gurman, S.J., Murphy, L.M., Perry, A., Smith, T.J., & Gardiner, P.H.E. (2010). Remediation of chromium(VI) by a methane-oxidizing bacterium. Environmental science & technology, 44 (1), 400-405. http://doi.org/10.1021/es901723c

Taylor, D., Dalton, C., Hall, A., Woodroofe, M.N., & Gardiner, P. (2009). Recent developments in selenium research. British journal of biomedical science, 66 (2), 107-116. http://doi.org/10.1080/09674845.2009.11730256

Ju-Nam, Y., Allen, D.W., Gardiner, P.H.E., & Bricklebank, N. (2008). Omega-thioacetylalkylphosphonium salts: precursors for the preparation of phosphonium-functionalised gold nanoparticles. Journal of organometallic chemistry, 693 (23), 3504-3508. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jorganchem.2008.08.009

Ju-Nam, Y., Allen, D.W., Gardiner, P.H.E., Light, M.E., Hursthouse, M.B., & Bricklebank, N. (2007). The synthesis and characterisation of masked phosphonioalkyl selenoates: Potential ligands for the production of functionalised gold nanoparticles. Journal of Organometallic Chemistry, 692 (22), 5065-5070. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jorganchem.2007.07.038

Ju-Nam, Y., Bricklebank, N., Allen, D.W., Gardiner, P.H.E., Light, M.E., & Hursthouse, M.B. (2006). Phosphonioalkylthiosulfate zwitterions - new masked thiol ligands for the formation of cationic functionalised gold nanoparticles. Organic and biomolecular chemistry, 4 (23), 4345. http://doi.org/10.1039/b610480k

Kamnev, A.A., Tugarova, A.V., Antonyuk, L.P., Tarantilis, P.A., Kulikov, L.A., Perfiliev, Y.D., ... Gardiner, P.H.E. (2006). Instrumental analysis of bacterial cells using vibrational and emission Mössbauer spectroscopic techniques. Analytica chimica acta, 573-57, 445-452. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2006.04.041

Colina, M., Gardiner, P.H.E., Rivas, Z., & Troncone, F. (2005). Determination of vanadium species in sediment, mussel and fish muscle tissue samples by liquid chromatography–inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Analytica chimica acta, 538 (1-2), 107-115. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2005.02.044

Kamnev, A.A., Tugarova, A.V., Antonyuk, L.P., Tarantilis, P.A., Polissiou, M.G., & Gardiner, P.H.E. (2005). Effects of heavy metals on plant-associated rhizobacteria: comparison of endophytic and non-endophytic strains of Azospirillum brasilense. Journal of trace elements in medicine and biology : organ of the Society for Minerals and Trace Elements (GMS), 19 (1), 91-95. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2005.03.002

Delsol, T., Samantilleke, A.P., Chaure, N.B., Gardiner, P.H., Simmonds, M., & Dharmadasa, I. (2004). Experimental study of graded bandgap Cu(InGa)(SeS)(2) thin films grown on glass/molybdenum substrates by selenization and sulphidation. Solar energy materials and solar cells, 82 (4), 587-599. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2004.02.018

Romero-Gonzalez, M.E., Williams, C.J., Gardiner, P.H.E., Gurman, S.J., & Habesh, S. (2003). Spectroscopic studies of the biosorption of Gold(III) by dealginated seaweed waste. Environmental science and technology, 37 (18), 4163. http://doi.org/10.1021/es020176w

Kamnev, A.A., Antonyuk, L.P., Tugarova, A.V., Tarantilis, P.A., Polissiou, M.G., & Gardiner, P.H.E. (2002). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic characterisation of heavy metal-induced metabolic changes in the plant-associated soil bacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp7. Journal of Molecular Structure, 610 (1-3), 127-131. http://doi.org/10.1016/s0022-2860(02)00021-2

Morton, J., Carolan, V.A., & Gardiner, P.H.E. (2002). The speciation of inorganic and methylmercury in human hair by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Journal of analytical atomic spectrometry, 17 (4), 377. http://doi.org/10.1039/b201978g

Morton, J., Carolan, V.A., & Gardiner, P.H.E. (2001). Removal of exogenously bound elements from human hair by various washing procedures and determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Analytica chimica acta, 455 (1), 23-34. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-2670(01)01578-1

Kamnev, A.A., Tarantilis, P.A., Antonyuk, L.P., Bespalova, L.A., Polissiou, M.G., Colina, M., ... Ignatov, V.V. (2001). Fourier transform Raman spectroscopic characterisation of cells of the plant-associated soil bacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp7. Journal of Molecular Structure, 563-564, 199-207. http://doi.org/10.1016/s0022-2860(00)00877-2

Romero-Gonzalez, M.E., Williams, C.J., & Gardiner, P.H.E. (2001). Study of the mechanisms of cadmium biosorption by dealginated seaweed waste. Environmental Science and Technology, 35 (14), 3025. http://doi.org/10.1021/es991133r

Patching, S.G., & Gardiner, P.H. (1999). Recent developments in selenium metabolism and chemical speciation: a review. Journal of trace elements in medicine and biology : organ of the Society for Minerals and Trace Elements (GMS), 13 (4), 193-214. http://doi.org/10.1016/s0946-672x(99)80037-6

Derbyshire, M., Lamberty, A., & Gardiner, P.H. (1999). Optimization of the Simultaneous Determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) by Ion Chromatography with Chemiluminescence Detection. Analytical chemistry, 71 (19), 4203-4207. http://doi.org/10.1021/ac9902751

Gardiner, P.H., Littlejohn, D., Halls, D.J., & Fell, G.S. (1995). Direct determination of selenium in human blood serum and plasma by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Journal of trace elements in medicine and biology : organ of the Society for Minerals and Trace Elements (GMS), 9 (2), 74-81. http://doi.org/10.1016/s0946-672x(11)80014-3

McDonald, C., Mortimer, P., McAllister, G., Gardiner, P.E., Reglinski, J., & Smith, W.E. (1995). A comparative study of the interaction of Myocrisin with albumin and gamma-globulin. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis, 13 (2), 99-102. http://doi.org/10.1016/0731-7085(94)00118-l

Gardiner, P.H.E., & Delves, H.T. (1994). Chapter 9 The chemical speciation of trace elements in biomedical specimens: Analytical techniques. . http://doi.org/10.1016/s0167-9244(08)70151-3

Gardiner, P.E. (1993). Considerations in the preparation of biological and environmental reference materials for use in the study of the chemical speciation of trace elements. Fresenius' Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 345 (2-4), 287-290. http://doi.org/10.1007/bf00322612

Reglinski, J., Wilson, R., & Gardiner, P.E. (1993). 5′ Thyronine de-iodinase a selenoenzyme with a possible importance in hyperthyroidism or graves' disease. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 51 (1-2), 411. http://doi.org/10.1016/0162-0134(93)85440-j

Gardiner, P.H. (1993). Factors that influence the distribution of trace element-containing chemical species in living systems before and after sample collection. Journal of trace elements and electrolytes in health and disease, 7 (1), 1-8.

Gardiner, P.E. (1988). Chemical speciation in biology and medicine: the role of atomic spectrometric techniques. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 3 (1), 163. http://doi.org/10.1039/ja9880300163

Gardiner, P.E., & Stoeppler, M. (1987). Optimisation of the analytical conditions for the determination of aluminium in human blood plasma and serum by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Part 2. Assessment of the analytical method. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 2 (4), 401. http://doi.org/10.1039/ja9870200401

Gardiner, P.E., Braetter, P., Gercken, B., & Tomiak, A. (1987). On-line sequential detection by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry of trace elements after liquid chromatography of biological fluids. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 2 (4), 375. http://doi.org/10.1039/ja9870200375

Gardiner, P. (1987). Species identification for trace inorganic elements in biological materials. Topics in Current Chemistry, 141, 147-174.

Gardiner, P., Gawlick, D., Bratter, P., Gatschke, W., & Meyer-Sabellek, W. (1987). Aluminum in the maintenance diet of rats. Trace Element Analytical Chemistry in Medicine and Biology, 4, 431-442.


Gardiner, P.E., Schierl, R., & Kreutzer, K. (1987). Aluminium speciation in soil solutions as studied by size exclusion chromatography. Plant and Soil, 103 (1), 151-154. http://doi.org/10.1007/bf02370683

Gardiner, P., Stoeppler, M., Mohl, C., & Novak, L. (1986). Application of the STPF concept to the determination of aluminium, cadmium, and lead in biological and environmental materials. Fortschritte in der atomspektrometrischen Spurenanalytik, 2, 419-427.

Gardiner, P.E., Stoeppler, M., & Nürnberg, H.W. (1985). Optimisation of the analytical conditions for the determination of aluminium in human blood plasma or serum by graphite furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry. Part I. Examination of the various analytical conditions. The Analyst, 110 (6), 611-617. http://doi.org/10.1039/an9851000611

Gardiner, P.E., Gessner, H., Brätter, P., Stoeppler, M., & Nürnberg, H.W. (1984). The Distribution of Zinc in Human Erythrocytes. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, 22 (2). http://doi.org/10.1515/cclm.1984.22.2.159

Gardiner, P.E., Gessner, H., Brätter, P., Stoeppler, M., & Nürnberg, H.W. (1984). The distribution of zinc in human erythrocytes. Journal of clinical chemistry and clinical biochemistry. Zeitschrift fur klinische Chemie und klinische Biochemie, 22 (2), 159-163. http://doi.org/10.1515/cclm.1984.22.2.159

Gardiner, P.E., Brätter, P., Negretti, V.E., & Schulze, G. (1983). Use of direct current argon plasma as a detector in gel filtration chromatography of biological fluids. Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy, 38 (1-2), 427-435. http://doi.org/10.1016/0584-8547(83)80141-4

Brätter, P., Berthold, K.P., & Gardiner, P.E. (1983). The use of reference materials as standards in the simultaneous multielement analysis of biological materials using inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy, 38 (1-2), 221-228. http://doi.org/10.1016/0584-8547(83)80119-0

Gardiner, P., Pauls, A., Koch, K.M., von Herrath, D., Schaefer, K., & Hüfler, M. (1982). Complications of hemofiltration. Hemofiltration, 32, 146-153.

Gardiner, P.E., Rösick, E., Rösick, U., Brätter, P., & Kynast, G. (1982). The application of gel filtration, immunonephelometry and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry to the study of the distribution of copper-, iron- and zinc-bound constituents in human amniotic fluid. Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry, 120 (1), 103-117. http://doi.org/10.1016/0009-8981(82)90081-x

Brätter, P., Berthold, K.P., Gardiner, P.E., Gawlik, D., & Behne, D. (1982). Combination of neutron activation analysis and argon plasma emission spectrocopy in the elemental analysis of biological materials. Journal of Radioanalytical Chemistry, 69 (1-2), 159-170. http://doi.org/10.1007/bf02515921

Gardiner, P.E., Ottaway, J.M., Fell, G.S., & Halls, D.J. (1981). Determination of aluminium in blood plasma or serum by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Analytica Chimica Acta, 128, 57-66. http://doi.org/10.1016/s0003-2670(01)84083-6

Gardiner, P.E., Ottaway, J.M., Fell, G.S., & Burn, R.R. (1981). The application of gel filtration and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry to the speciation of protein-bound zinc and copper in human blood serum. Analytica Chimica Acta, 124 (2), 281-294. http://doi.org/10.1016/s0003-2670(01)93575-5

Gardiner, P., Fell, G., Elliot, H., & Williams, E. (1980). Dialysis Encephalopathy - evidence implicating aluminium. Dialysis and Transplantation, 9 (ii), 1027-1030.


Gardiner, P.E., Ottaway, J.M., & Fell, G.S. (1979). Accuracy of the direct determination of cadmium in urine by carbon-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry. Talanta, 26 (9), 841-847. http://doi.org/10.1016/0039-9140(79)80263-5


Elliott, H.L., Macdougall, A.I., Fell, G.S., & Gardiner, P.H. (1978). Plasmapheresis, aluminium, and dialysis dementia. Lancet (London, England), 2 (8102), 1255. http://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(78)92128-1

Elliott, H.L., Macdougall, A.I., Haase, G., Cumming, R.L., Gardiner, P.H., & Fell, G.S. (1978). Plasmapheresis in the treatment of dialysis encephalopathy. Lancet (London, England), 2 (8096), 940-941. http://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(78)91654-9

Elena Romero-González, M., Williams, C.J., & Gardiner, P.H.E. (n.d.). The application of dealginated seaweed as a cation exchanger foron-line preconcentration and chemical speciation of trace metals. J. Anal. At. Spectrom, 15 (8), 1009-1013. http://doi.org/10.1039/b002737p

Conference papers

Tugarova, A.V., Kamnev, A.A., Antonyuk, L.P., & Gardiner, P.H.E. (2006). Azospirillum brasilense resistance to some heavy metals. METAL IONS IN BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE, VOL 9, 9, 242-+.

Tugarova, A.V., Kamnev, A.A., Antonyuk, L.P., Gardiner, P.H.E., Tarantilis, P.A., & Polissiou, M.G. (2004). Accumulation of heavy metals by the soil bacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 and some of its mutant strains. METAL IONS IN BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE, VOL 8, 8, 30-33.

Davidson, C.M., Peters, N.J., Britton, A., Brady, L., Gardiner, P.H.E., & Lewis, B.D. (2004). Surface analysis and depth profiling of corrosion products formed in lead pipes used to supply low alkalinity drinking water. Water science and technology : a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research, 49 (2), 49-54. http://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2004.0086

Colina, M., & Gardiner, P.H.E. (1999). Simultaneous determination of total nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur by means of microwave digestion and ion chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A, 847 (1-2), 285-290. http://doi.org/10.1016/s0021-9673(99)00024-2

Gardiner, P. (1982). The determination and speciation of essential trace elements in intravenous infusion solutions. In Braetter, P., Negretti, V., Schulze, G., & von Stockhausen, H. (Eds.) Trace Element Analytical Chemistry in Medicine and Biology Vol 2, Munich. Walter de Gruyter

Book chapters

Gardiner, P.H.E. (2002). Speciation of Metals and Metalloids in Biological Systems. (pp. 387-400). Wiley: http://doi.org/10.1002/9780470988312.ch14

Gardiner, P. (1995). Fractionation and speciation of trace metals and metalloids in biological fluids. In Handbook of Metal-Ligand Interactions in Biological Fluids Bioinorganic Medicine Volume 2 (In Two Volumes). CRC Press

Gardiner, P. (1994). The chemical speciation of trace metals and metalliods in biomedical specimens. In Techniques and Instrumentation in Analytical Chemistry Series.


Gardiner, P., Foster, R.D., & Howe, A.M. (2002). Measurement of mercury in workplace airPart 2:Development and validation of MDHS 16/2. (IEAS/98/08). Health and Safety Labarotory.

Gardiner, P., Foster, R.D., & Howe, A.M. (2002). Measurement of mercury in workplace air Part 3: Investigations into alternative methods. (IEAS/98/09). Health and Safety Laboratory.

Gardiner, P., Foster, R.D., & Howe, A.M. (2002). Measurement of mercury in workplace air Part 4: ChromAir Mercury Badges. (IEAS/98/10). Health and Safety Laboratory.

Gardiner, P., Foster, R.D., & Howe, A.M. (2001). Measurement of mercury in workplace airPart 1: General Details. (IEAS/98/07). Health and Safety Laboratory.

Theses / Dissertations

Eswyah, A.S. (2018). Bioremediation of selenium species in solution bymethanotrophic bacteria. (Doctoral thesis). Supervised by Gardiner, P. http://doi.org/10.7190/shu-thesis-00070

Aldewachi, H. (2017). Chromogenic detection of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) activity using peptide-functionalized gold nanoparticles. (Doctoral thesis). Supervised by Gardiner, P. http://doi.org/10.7190/shu-thesis-00054

Leese, E.J. (2017). Analytical methods to investigate occupational exposure to toxic elements and their species. (Doctoral thesis). Supervised by Carolan, V., Gardiner, P., & Morton, J. http://doi.org/10.7190/shu-thesis-00058

Ismael, M.M. (2014). Bioremediation of hexavalent chromium using gram-negative bacteria. (Doctoral thesis). Supervised by Smith, T., & Gardiner, P.

Hassan, E.M. (2010). Remediation of contaminated land and solutions with binders derived from waste material. (Doctoral thesis). Supervised by Gardiner, P., Mangat, P., & Khatib, J.

Hamad, B.M.D. (2009). Studies on the biotransformation of chromium (VI) by methane oxidising bacteria. (Doctoral thesis). Supervised by Gardiner, P., & Smith, T.

Ju-Nam, Y.K. (2007). Functionalised metal nanoparticles as novel reagents for biomedical analysis. (Doctoral thesis). Supervised by Bricklebank, N., Gardiner, P., & Allen, D.

Mudiganti, A.K. (2004). Application of the BCR fractionation procedure to inform the remediation of contaminated soils. (Doctoral thesis). Supervised by Gardiner, P.

Morales Hernandez, M.B. (2003). Leaching behaviour, mechanical and durability properties of mortar containing municipal incineration bottom ash. (Doctoral thesis). Supervised by Khatib, J., Gardiner, P., & Wright, L.

Zakaria, O. (2003). Development of capillary electrophoresis methods for the separation of metal cations. (Doctoral thesis). Supervised by Tetler, L., Crowther, D., & Gardiner, P.

Caceres, A.B. (2002). The development of methods for the determination of selenium using spectrofluorimetric and ICP-MS techniques. (Doctoral thesis). Supervised by Gardiner, P., Hewson, A., & Drew, P.

Derbyshire, M. (2001). Speciation of chromium in environmental matrices. (Doctoral thesis). Supervised by Gardiner, P., & Bricklebank, N.

Rincon, M.N.C. (2001). Determination of nutrients and heavy metal species in samples from Lake Maracaibo. (Doctoral thesis). Supervised by Gardiner, P., & Allen, D.

Romero Gonzalez, M.E. (2001). Characterisation and optimisation of biosorption of metals by dealginated seaweed. (Doctoral thesis). Supervised by Gardiner, P., & Williams, C.

Mawhinney, J. (2000). Determination of trace elements in hair for monitoringenvironmental and occupational exposure. (Doctoral thesis). Supervised by Gardiner, P., & Carolan, V.

Other activities

Member Admissions Committee of the Royal Society of Chemistry

RSC Accreditation Assessor

MSc External Examiner

Journal Reviewer:

RSC Journals: Analyst, Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, Metallomics

ACS Journals: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering

Postgraduate supervision

Previous supervision:


  1. The Characterisation and Identification of Iron Species in Plant Extracts Used for the Treatment of Iron Deficiency Anaemia
  2. Determination of Mercury Species in Sediments by Cold Vapour Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry
  3. Determination of Trace Elements in Crude Oils by ICP-MS using Detergent Micro-emulsion


  1. Die Spurenelementzusammensetzung des Fruchtwassers von Risiko-Schwangerschaften (The Trace Element Constituents in Amniotic Fluids from Risk Pregnancies)
  2. Analytik von Spurenelementen and Metalloproteinen in Körperflüssigkeiten mit Gelfiltrationschromatographie und Plasmaemissionsspektrometrie (Analysis of Trace Elements and Metalloproteins in Body Fluids with Gel Filtration Chromatography and Plasma Emission Spectrometry)
  3. Mercury in Hair: Method Development and Application to Population Studies
  4. Toxic Trace Elements in Hair for use in the Study of Exposure to Chemicals in the Environment and Workplace
  5. Multi-element Chromatographic Profiling of Environmental Pollution
  6. Speciation of Chromium in Environmental Matrices
  7. Optimisation and Characterisation of the Adsorption of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb on Dealginated Seaweed
  8. Determination of Nutrients and Heavy Metal Species in Samples from Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela
  9. The Development of Methods for the Determination of Selenium using Spectrofluorimetric and ICP-MS Techniques
  10. Application of the BCR Fractionation Procedure to Inform the Remediation of Contaminated Soils
  11. Leaching Behaviour, Mechanical and Durability Properties of Mortar Containing Incineration Bottom Ash Sponsored by Sheffield Hallam University
  12. Bioremediation of Metal Contaminated Soils
  13. Remediation of Contaminated Land and Solutions Using Binders Derived from Waste Material Completed
  14. Studies on the Biotransformation of Chromium(VI) by Methane Oxidising Bacteria
  15. Bioremediation of Hexavalent Chromium using Gram-Negative Bacteria
  16. Chromogenic Detection of Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV using Peptide-Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles
  17. Bioremediation of selenium contaminated solutions

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