In Broad Daylight: Uyghur Forced Labour and Global Solar Supply Chains

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In Broad Daylight: Uyghur Forced Labour and Global Solar Supply Chains

Two workers manually crushing silicon
Jungar Basin

In Broad Daylight

In Broad Daylight reveals how forced labour in the Uyghur region has ripple effects throughout international solar supply chains.

In Broad Daylight report cover pageThe People’s Republic of China (PRC) has placed millions of indigenous Uyghur and Kazakh citizens from the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (XUAR or Uyghur Region) into what the government calls “surplus labour” (富余劳动力) and “labour transfer” (劳动力转移)programmes. An official PRC government report published in November 2020 documents the “placement” of 2.6 million minoritised citizens in jobs in farms and factories within the Uyghur Region and across the country through these state-sponsored “surplus labour” and “labour transfer” initiatives. The government claims that these programmes are in accordance with PRC law and that workers are engaged voluntarily, in a concerted government-supported effort to alleviate poverty. However, significant evidence – largely drawn from government and corporate sources – reveals that labour transfers are deployed in the Uyghur Region within an environment of unprecedented coercion, undergirded by the constant threat of re-education and internment. Many indigenous workers are unable to refuse or walk away from these jobs, and thus the programmes are tantamount to forcible transfer of populations and enslavement.

It is critical that we examine the particular goods that are being produced as a result of this forced labour regime. This paper focuses on just one of those industries – the solar energy industry – and reveals the ways forced labour in the Uyghur Region can pervade an entire supply chain and reach deep into international markets. We concluded that the solar industry is particularly vulnerable to forced labour in the Uyghur Region because:

  • 95% of solar modules rely on one primary material – solar-grade polysilicon.
  • Polysilicon manufacturers in the Uyghur Region account for approximately 45% of the world’s solar-grade polysilicon supply.
  • All polysilicon manufacturers in the Uyghur Region have reported their participation in labour transfer programmes and/or are supplied by raw materials companies that have.
  • In 2020, China produced an additional 30% of the world’s polysilicon on top of that produced in the Uyghur Region, a significant proportion of which may be affected by forced labour in the Uyghur Region as well.

In the course of this research, we identified:


  • 11 companies engaged in labour transfers
  • 4 additional companies located within industrial parks that have accepted labour transfers
  • 90 Chinese and international companies whose supply chains are affected

This report seeks to increase the knowledge base upon which the solar industry determines its exposures to forced labour in the Uyghur Region. We investigated the entire solar module supply chain from quartz to panel to better understand the extent to which forced labour in the Uyghur region affects international value chains. The examples of engagement in these programs are meant to provide stakeholders with the evidence base upon which to judge risk of exposure to forced labour in the solar supply chain.

Evidence base

The evidence of forced labour in the Uyghur Region is expansive and growing. The Forced Labour Lab is committed to making evidence and data regarding the oppression of minoritised citizens in the Uyghur region available to the public.

The evidence presented in the report is all publicly available. However, due to the frequency with which corporate reports, news, and social media pages are removed from the web, all websites referred to in the paper have been archived through the Archive.Today website. Archived versions of pdfs are only screenshots of the website, so those materials are collected here. Materials presented below can be used to understand the industry better and illustrate the investment of solar/polysilicon industry in Xinjiang.


Wo Ai Zhundong: Zhundong Industrial Park Promotional Video
CCTV report on TBEA's poverty alleviation efforts in Southern Xinjiang

Corporate Reports

Corporate disclosures play an important role in understanding the supply chain. These are some of the reports we refer to in our report. (We have not included the cited US SEC filings here because they are easily accessible for free online.)

Corporate reports are available through a Google Drive (44 reports). 

Government Reports, Rulings, and Directives

Local and regional governments provide cadres with specific instructions as to how to operate labour transfers and surplus labour programmes. These directives and reports help us to understand the way the state is integrally involved in labour recruitment practices in the Uyghur Region.

Industrial Parks

Industrial parks play a central role in the development of the industry in the Uyghur Region, as well as in the transfer of labour.

Peking University report on minority labourers in Xinjiang.

Industry Responses to Forced Labour in the Uyghur Region


Get in touch

Contact the Helena Kennedy Centre to discuss facilities, partnerships, doctoral research and more

Email us


BBC (2021), China uses Uyghur forced labour to make solar panels, says report15 May 2021.

CNN (2021), Solar panels are key to Biden's energy plan. But the global supply chain may rely on forced labor from China14 May 2021.

The Information's 411 (2021), Apple and Uyghur Labor [Audio podcast episode], 15 May 2021.

Research team

Laura Murphy

Professor Laura Murphy

Professor of Human Rights and Contemporary Slavery

Laura Murphy
Nyrola Elima

Nyrola Elimä

Supply Chain Analyst